Midterm Study Guide (Core 300)
Study items for Intro and Presocratics:
Know the etymological definition of philosophy.
Philo = love
Sophia = Wisdom
Philo+Sophia = love of wisdom
Be able to explain the basic subdivisions of philosophy and list some questions that arise in each subdivision. 517207517462500331470015494000195262514605000METAPHISICSEPISTEMOLOGYVALUE THEORY
THE STUDY OF ULTIMATE REALITY THE STUDY OF KNOWLEDGETHE STUDY OF VALUE OR—What’s really real!Moral Theory of Ethics--Aesthetics Individual Ethics—Political Philosophy
State the Rationalist Credo.
THE UNIVERSE IS ORDERLY-THE UNIVERSE IS KNOWABLE—THE UNIVERSE IS KNOWN BEST BY REASON State the Traditional Analysis of Knowledge.
JTB- TRUTH, BELIEF, AND JUSTIFICATION ARE INDIVIDUALLY NECCASSARY AND TOGETHER SUFFUCIENT FOR KNOWLEDGE. ALL THE INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS ARE REQUIRED FOR KNOWLEDGE. IF WE ARE MISSING ONE ELEMENT, WE DON’T HAVE KNOWLEDGE. WHEN THEY ARE TOGETHER, WE HAVE KNOWLEDGE Name some of the sources of knowledge claimed by the Standard View of knowledge. SENSE PERCEPTION
REVELATION FROM GOD
Explain the Presocratics’ shift away from mythological understandings of reality.
What are the so-called “four elements” commonly discussed in Presocratic philosophy? Why are these elements important? EARTH
Study items for Plato:
Explain the concept of Socratic wisdom.
EVEN THOUGH I KNOW NOTHING AT LEAST I KNOW THAT I KNOW NOTHING Explain Plato’s attempt to reconcile Heraclitus and Parmenides on the topic of change. DUALISM BOTH HERACLITUS AND PARMENIDES ARE EQUALLY WRONG ANF EQUALLY RIGHT…THE PHYSICAL WORLD AMD TRHE WORLD OF THE FORMS. Give the definition of “Forms.”
THE ETERNAL UNCHANGING IDEAS WHICH LIE BEHINDTHE CHANGING, TEMPURAL, PHYSICAL WORLD. Explain Plato’s Myth of the Cave, and explain (in a very basic way) what the Myth is supposed to illustrate. Explain what the example of the “equal sticks” (discussed in Phaedo) is supposed to show. PERFECT EQUALITY, COULDN’T HAVE GOTTENPEFECT EQUALITY IDEA FROM SENSES IN THIS LIFE..WE WERE BORN WITH IT.EXISTED WITH THE FORMS. LEARNING IS REMEMBERING. Plato asks two key ethical questions in Republic. What are these questions, and how does Plato answer them? WHAT IS JUSTICE—JUSTICE IS THE HEALTH OF THE SOUL
IS IT ALWAYS BETTER TO BE JUST THAN UNJUST
Study Items: Aristotle
State the definitions of (a) argument; and (b) logic.
A SET OF STATEMENTS IN WHICH ONE STATEMENT (CONCLUSION) IS AFFIRMED ON THE BASIS OF OTHER(THE STATEMENT) (b) STUDY OF State Aristotle’s definition of knowledge.
WE THINK WE KNOW ONE THING…WHEN WE KNOW BOTH THE CAUSE OF WHICH A THING IS(AND KNOW THAT IT IS IT’S CAUSE) AND ALSO THAT IT IS NOT POSSIBLE FOR IT TO BE OTHERWISE” Compare and contrast Plato and Aristotle on the sources of knowledge. (HAND OUT/BOARD WORK)Explain why someone might think that Aristotle’s definition of knowledge is too strict. YOU DON’T NEED TO KNOW THE WHY OR THE FOUR CAUSES.
Explain Aristotle’s account of change.
POTENTIALITY AND ACTUALITY …
6. Using Aristotle’s Four Causes, explain (a) a knife; (b) a mushroom. Which is more difficult to explain? Why? 7. What does Aristotle think is the Highest Good for humans? How does he think we can discover this? 8. Explain Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean, and illustrate it with at least one virtue (and corresponding vices). Study Items for Hellenistic Philosophy:
Explain the difference between Epicurean and Stoic physicalism (Both groups think that everything is physical; but they disagree about determinism. Explain the disagreement.) Explain the difference between the Epicurean and Stoic attitudes toward sense perception (on the one hand) and the Skeptical view (on the other). Be able to state both of the Epicureans’ arguments against fear of death. What is the Epicurean view of the Good?
Explain the common misunderstanding of Epicurean ethics discussed in class (and explain the Epicureans’ actual view as a contrast.) What is the link between Epicurean theology and Epicurean ethics? What is the link between Stoic theology and Stoic ethics?
State the Skeptical Argument from Disagreement.
With reference to Skepticism, explain the three attitudes someone might take toward a claim / proposition. Study Items for Jesus, Paul, and the Early Church:
Be able to explain the differences between the Hebrew view of God and the view of the Epicureans. State the three key early Christian beliefs about Jesus, and explain what made it possible for the early Christians to hold these beliefs. What were some key factors in the success of the early Church? Briefly explain these factors. What was the key theological issue at the Council of Nicea? Explain the key difference between the Creed of Arius and the Nicene Creed. What was the key theological issue at the Council of Chalcedon.Study items for the Middle Ages / Faith and Reason 1. Explain how the three threads of the medieval synthesis were dominant or in decline in the early and late Middle Ages. (In other words: discuss the three groups that were influential during the early and late Middle Ages. Discuss the relative degree of influence among these groups during the different periods.) 2. How do the different styles of architecture from the Middle Ages reflect the cultural position of the church? 3. Contrast Avicenna, Al-Ghazali, and Averroes on the topic of faith and reason. 4. Explain Augustine’s view about the process of moving from faith to understanding. 5. State the dilemma about evil that Augustine encountered. Explain his response to this problem. 6. Does Aquinas think that certain doctrines of the Faith can be proved by reason? Does he think these same doctrines must be proved in order to be reasonably believed? Explain his views. Study Items for the Renaissance, Reformation, and Scientific Revolution What does “Renaissance” mean? What was being reborn at the time of the Renaissance? What is the basic definition of humanism? What varieties does humanism come in? Explain syncretism as defended by Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola. Explain what indulgences are, and explain some of Luther’s problems with them. Explain why the thinkers of the Scientific Revolution reject Aristotle’s notion of a final cause (in explaining this, you will need to provide a brief explanation of final causes).