Q. Discuss the functions of Human Resource Management in an organization. Enumerate the challenges of HRM in the present organizational context.
Ans. The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into two categories viz 1) Managerial Functions 2) Operative Functions :
FUNCTIONS OF HRM
| Operative Functions
| Human Resources Development
| Human Relations
| Industrial Relations
| Recent Trends in HRM
1. Managerial Functions: Managerial functions of personnel management involve planning, organizing, directing and controlling.
Planning: It is pre-determined course of action. Planning pertains to formulating strategies of personnel programmes and changes in advance that will contribute to the organizational goals. It involves planning of human resources, requirements, recruitment, selection, training etc. It also involves forecasting of personnel needs, changing values, attitudes and behaviour of employees and their impact on the organization.
Organising : An organization is a means to an end. It is essential to carry out the determined course of action. An organization is a structure and a process by which a co-operative group of human beings allocates its task among its members, identifies relationships and integrates its activities towards a common objective. Complex relationships exist between the specialized departments and the general departments as many top managers are seeking the advice of the personnel manager. Thus an organization establishes relationships among the employees so that they can collectively contribute to the attainment of company goals.
Directing : The next logical function after completing planning and organizing is the execution of the plan. The basic function of personnel management at any level is motivating, commanding, leading and activating people. The willing and effective co-operation of employees for the attainment of organizational goals is possible through proper direction. Tapping the maximum potentialities of the people is possible through motivation and command. Co-ordination deals with the task of blending efforts in order to ensure successful attainment of an objective.
Controlling: After planning, organizing and directing various activities of personnel management, the performance is to be verified in order to know that the personnel functions are performed in conformity with the plans and directions of an organization. Controlling also involves checking, verifying and comparing of the actuals with the plans, identification of deviations if any and standards through controls. Auditing training programmes, analyzing labour turnover records, directing morale surveys, conducting separate interviews are some of the means of controlling the personnel management function and making it effective.
2. Operative Functions: The operative functions of human resources management are related to specific activities of personnel management viz, employment, development, compensation and relations. All these functions are interacted with managerial functions.
Employment: It is the first operative function of Human Resource Management. Employment is concerned with securing and employing the people possessing the required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve the organizational objectives. It covers functions such as job analysis, human resource planning, recruitment, selection, placement, induction and internal mobility.
Human Resource Development: It is a process of improving, molding and changing the skills, knowledge, creative ability, aptitude, values, commitment etc., based on present and future job and organizational requirements. It includes Performance Appraisal, Training, Management Development, Career Planning and Development, Internal Mobility, Transfer, Promotion, Demotion, Change and Organisational...
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