Master of Arts in Nursing

Topics: Nursing, Nursing care plan, Nursing process Pages: 135 (27993 words) Published: August 8, 2012



Specific Objective:

At the completion of Module 1, you will be able to:

1. Explain the development of the discipline of nursing

2. Discuss the metaparadigm of nursing

3. Discuss the nursing process

4. Describe the levels of theory development and their relationships.


Nursing has a mandate to provide health care for clients at different points in the health – illness continuum. It is now considered as an evolving profession. There is a knowledge base, authority over education, altruistic service, a code of ethics and registration requirements for practice ( Mc Ewen, 2007 )

A discipline is a unique perspective, a distinct way of viewing all phenomenon which defines the limits and nature of its inquiry. It is a branch of knowledge ordered through the theories and methods evolving from more than one worldview of the phenomenon of concern. According to Mc Ewen (2007) nursing’s knowledge base draws from many disciplines. In the past it has depended heavily on physiology, sociology, psychology and medicine to provide academic standing and to improve practice. However, recently nursing has been seeking what is unique to nursing and developing those aspects into an academic discipline.

What are the components of a discipline?

1. Research- this is a systematic method of inquiry to discover an/or validate knowledge thus establishing a knowledge base to be used in practice. It contributes to the development of theory for practice.

2. Theory- is an intellectual invention which groups knowledge, ideas and experience seeking to illumine a given phenomena. It involves intellectual operations and is comprised of facts, principles, and concepts that are arranged to claim their interrelatedness. It describes something, a happening, a phenomenon, or explains phenomena and organize ideas and knowledge.

Theory development is essential to nursing practice in that it describes, predicts, controls and explains phenomenon of interest to nurses. It validates, enhances and improves nursing practice promoting understanding and explanation of the phenomena and gives rise to the body of knowledge.

3. Practice – It is the application of the discipline with a knowledge base a vehicle for implementation of theory as well as validation and impetus for research.

According to Meleis (2007) there are 4 important defining characteristics that determine nursings perspective:

1. Nature of nursing as a human science
2. Nursing as a practice- oriented discipline
3. Nursing as a caring discipline – the caring relationships that nurses and patients develop 4. Nursing as a health oriented discipline. It is an art where nurses grasp the meaning that is inherent in their encounter with patients, establish connections with clients skillfully perform nursing activities, choose between alternatives and to morally conduct nursing practice.

The Stages in the Development of the Nursing Discipline

1. Stage of Practice, Apprenticeship and service- In this stage the mission of nursing is to provide care and comfort to enhance healing and sense of well- being and to create a healthy environment that helps decrease suffering and deterioration.

2. Stage of Education and Administration- In this stage the focus of nursing is on what curriculum to develop and what training programs to offer to teach nursing practice also, what educational programs are best for prospective nurses, and what is the best venue for the education of nurses; is it the university or in the hospital

3. Stage of Research- In this stage nurses begin to look for means to improve the practice of nursing. Nurses begin to engage in nursing inquiries and scientific endeavors. Thus,...

Bibliography: Alligood, M. 1997. Nursing Theory and Utilization, New York: C.V. Mosby Co.
Capenito, L. J. 1987. Nursing Care Plans and Documentation, Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Company.
Catalano, J. 1996. Contemporary Professional Nursing, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
Chinn. 1987. Theory and Nursing: A Systematic Approach. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby.
Gordon, M. 1987. Nursing Diagnosis: Process and Application, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hammer, B. and V. Henderson. 1955. Textbook of Principles and Practice of Nursing, New York: Macmillan, Inc.
Henderson, V. 1966. The Nature of Nursing, New York: Macmillan.
Henderson, V. 1972. The Nature of Nursing, New York: Macmillan, Inc.
Johnson, D.E. 1980. “The Behavioral System for Nursing.” In Conceptual Models For Nursing Practice. 2nd ed., edited by J.P. Riehl and C. Roy. New York: Appleton Century-Crofts.
King, I. M. 1982. A Theory of Nursing: Systems, Concepts, Process, East Norwalk, Conn.: Appleton-Century Crofts.
Kinlein, M. 1977. Independent Nursing Practice and Clients, Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company.
Kim, M., McFarland, G. and Mclane, A.M. 1984. Classification of Nursing Diagnosis, Philadelphia: Saunders.
Leininger, M. 1988. Transcultural Nursing: Concepts, Theories of Practices. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Levine, M.E. 1973. Introduction to Clinical Nursing, 2nd Ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company
Marriner, A
Mckay, R. in Meleis. 1969. Theoretical Nursing Developmental and Progress, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.
Meleis, A. 1991. Theoretical Nursing: Developemnt and Progress, Philadelphia: Lippincott Co.
Meleis, A. 1997. Theoretical Foundations in Nursing Development and Progress. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
Meleis, A. I. 1997. Theoretical Nursing: Development and Progress, New York: Lippincott-Raven Publishers.
Newman, M. 1976. Theory Development in Nursing, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.
Neuman, B. 1982. The Newman Systems Model: Application to Nursing Education and Practice. East Norwalk, Conn: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Nightingale, F. 1969. Notes on Nursing: What is Not and What it is. New York: Dover Publications.
Orem, d. 1971. Nursing: Concepts of Practice. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Orlando, I.J. 1961. The Dynamic Nurse-Patient Relationships: Function, Process, and Principles. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
Peplau, H. E. 1986. Interpersonal Relations in Nursing, cited by Torres, G. In Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Norwalk, Conn: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Potter, P. and Perry, A. 1993. Fundamentals of Nursing, Boston: Mosby Year Book.
Potter, C. and A. Perry. 1997. Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts, Process and Practice. St. Louis, Missouri: C.V. Mosby.
Rogers, M.E. 1970 An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
Roy, C., and S. Roberts. 1981. Theory Construction in Nursing: An Adaptation Model. Englewood Clifts, N.J., Prentice Hall, Inc.
Roy, C. 1984. Introduction to Nursing: An Adaptation Model. N.J. Prentice Hall.
Shoemarker, J.K. 1984. Essential Features of Nursing Diagnosis. St. Louis: Mosby Yearbook.
Taylor, C., Lillis, C. and Lemone, P. 1993. Fundamentals of Nursing Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
Taylor, c., Lillis C., and Lemone, P. 1996. Fundamentals of Nursing, Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.
Torres, G. 1986. Theoretical Foundations of Nursing, Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Von Bertalanffy. 1968. General Systems Theory, New York: George Braziller, Inc.
Walker, Lorrain Olazenski and Kay Cralson Avont, 2005, Strategies for Theory Constrcution in Nursing. Application Century Crafts.
Watson, J. 1976. Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring. Bodton: Little & Brown Company.
Wesley, R. 1992. Nursing Theories and Models, Pennsylvania: Springhouse Corporation.
Wiedenbach, R. 1964. Clinical Nursing: A Helping Art, New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Yura, H. & Walsh, M. 1988. The Nursing Process: Assessing, Planning, Implementing and Evaluating. Norwalk. Norwalk, Con: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay about Leadership in Nursing
  • Essay on nursing
  • nursing Essay
  • nursing Research Paper
  • Is Nursing an Art or Science Essay
  • Essay about ART `
  • Nursing Essay
  • Nursing Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free