Mass transfer and separation process

Topics: Chemical engineering, Mass transfer, Diffusion Pages: 1572 (352601 words) Published: October 14, 2014
Principles of

Mass Transferand Separation Processes

Binay K. Dutta

Universiti Teknologi Petronas
Malaysia
New Delhi-110001

2009
PRINCIPLES OF MASS TRANSFER AND SEPARATION PROCESSES Binay K. Dutta © 2007 by PHI Learning Private Limited, New Delhi. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Cover photo — Courtesy: Haldia Petrochemicals Limited ISBN-978-81-203-2990-4 The export rights of this book are vested solely with the publisher. Third Printing ººº November, 2009 Published by Asoke K. Ghosh, PHI Learning Private Limited, M-97, Connaught Circus, New Delhi-110001 and Printed by Rajkamal Electric Press, Plot No. 2, Phase IV, HSIDC, Kundli-131028, Sonepat, Haryana.

To the memory of
My parents Gouri Dutta and Baneswar Dutta and
My father-in-law Debabrata Majumder

Contents
Preface xi
1. INTRODUCTION 1– 6 References 6
2. MOLECULAR DIFFUSION 7–73 2.1 Concentration, Velocity and Flux 8 2.2 Fick’s Law 11
2.3 Steady State Molecular Diffusion through a Constant Area in a Binary Gas Mixture 14
2.4 Multicomponent Diffusion 30
2.5 Gas-Phase Diffusion Coefficient: Measurement and Prediction 36 2.6 Molecular Diffusion in Liquids 42
2.7 Diffusion through a Variable Area 48
2.8 Knudsen Diffusion, Surface Diffusion and Self-Diffusion 57 2.9 Applications of the Principles of Molecular Diffusion 59 Notations 59
Short and Multiple Choice Questions 60
Problems 64
References 72
3. CONVECTIVE MASS TRANSFER AND MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 74–121 3.1 The Mass Transfer Coefficient 76
3.2 Types of Mass Transfer Coefficients 77
3.3 Dimensionless Groups in Mass Transfer 82
3.4 Correlations for the Convective Mass Transfer Coefficient 85 3.5 Turbulent or Eddy Diffusion 89
3.6 The Wetted-Wall Column 91
3.7 Theories of Mass Transfer 91
3.8 Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer Analogies 102
v

vi Contents

Notations 106
Short and Multiple Choice Questions 107 Problems 111
References 121
4. INTERPHASE MASS TRANSFER 122–171 4.1 Equilibrium between Phases 123 4.2 The Raoult’s and the Henry’s law 124
4.3 Mass Transfer between Two Phases 125
4.4 The Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient 128
4.5 Material Balance in a Contacting Equipment—the Operating Line 139 4.6 Mass Transfer in Stagewise Contact of two Phases 143 4.7 Interphase Mass Transfer in Drug Delivery Systems 157
4.8 Applications 158
Notations 159
Short and Multiple Choice Questions 160
Problems 163
References 171
5. GAS–LIQUID CONTACTING EQUIPMENT 172–256 5.1 Introduction to Gas–Liquid Contacting 173
5.2 Tray or Plate Column 173
5.3 Operational Features of a Tray Column 182
5.4 A Few Mechanical Details 189
5.5 Tray Design 192
5.6 High Capacity Trays 208
5.7 Agitated Vessels 212
5.8 The Bubble Column 213
5.9 The Spray Tower 214
5.10 The Venturi Scrubber 215
5.11 The Packed Tower 216
5.12 Flooding in a Packed Tower 230
5.13 Theoretical Models of Flow through a Packed Tower 240
5.14 Comparison between Packed and Plate Towers 241
Notations 243
Multiple Choice Questions 244
Short Questions 251
Problems 252
References 254
6. GAS ABSORPTION AND STRIPPING 257–318 6.1 Equilibrium in a Gas–Liquid System 259 6.2 Selection of Solvent and Stripping Medium 259
6.3 Minimum Liquid Rate for Absorption 261
6.4 Design of a Packed Tower 265
6.5 Correlations for Mass Transfer Coefficients in Packed Towers 281 Contents

vii

6.6 Determination of the Number of Stages in a Tray Tower 285 6.7 Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP) 286

6.8 Tray Efficiency 293
6.9 Other Applications of Gas Absorption and Stripping 300 Notations 302 Short and Multiple Choice Questions 303
Problems 310
References 317
7. DISTILLATION 319–421 7.1 Vapour–Liquid Equilibrium 321 7.2 Enthalpy–Concentration Diagram 340
7.3 Flash Vaporization 344
7.4 Steam Distillation 350
7.5 Batch Distillation 353
7.6 Continuous Multistage Fractionation of...


References: Fabrication, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1993.
Myers, G.E., Analytical Methods in Conduction Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1971.
Vergnaud, J.M., Liquid Transport Processes in Polymeric Materials, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1991.
Wellek, F.M. et al., Can. J. Chem. Engg., 56(1978) 181.
Westerterp, K.R. et al., Chemical Reactor Design and Operation, Wiley, New York, 1984.
Wise, D.L., Handbook of Pharmaceutical Controlled Release Technology, Marcel Dekker, Boston,
2000.
ai and bi being the van der Waals constants for the pure component i. A few other mixing rules have
been described by Muhlbauer and Raal (1995) and by Prausnitz et al
Table A.1 Common equations of state (Seader and Henley, 2006) Equation Adjustable parameters
Ideal gas law
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