Limbic system

Topics: Cerebrum, Limbic system, Neuroanatomy Pages: 17 (1651 words) Published: April 24, 2014
Please remember to read the
functions of Hypothalamus since
this also forms a part of the limbic
system and the class has been
taken separately
There are other areas in the structures near to the limbic
system that are intimately connected to it – namely cingulate gyrus, basal ganglia, ventral tegmental area of the brain
stem (just below the thalamus) and prefrontal cortex. So
their functions are also needed to be studied alongwith
this.

LIMBIC SYSTEM

16th April, 2014

History
• Paul Broca (1824-1880):
1878: “le grand lobe limbique”
Refers to a ring of gray matter on
the medial aspect of the cerebral
hemispheres.
• James Papez (1883-1958):
1930’s: defined a limbic system that might
underlie the relationship between emotion
and memory (Papez’ circuit).

Components
• Amygdaloid body
• Hippocampus
(“seahorse”)
• Cingulate gyrus
• Parahippocampal gyrus
• Hypothalamus
• Mamillary bodies
• Anterior nucleus of
thalamus

The Limbic System

Neurological Development and the Limbic System
R-Hemi closer connections to limbic system than L-Hemi.

R-Hemi develops earlier in infancy than L-Hemi
Emotions appear in babies before language
Emotionally expressive babies start talking later
When babies start to talk, don’t show emotion
13 mos—talk, no emotion
19 mos—talk + emotion

Functions
• “Emotional brain
Emotional and motivational aspects of
behavior.
Provides emotional component to learning
process:
Especially the amygdala.

• Associated with memory
Especially the hippocampus.

• Associated with pain/pleasure, rage

Amygdala
• Large nuclear group in temporal lobe.
• Afferents:
Olfactory tract
Solitary nucleus
Parabrachial nucleus
Limbic neocortex:
Cingulate gyrus
Parahippocampal gyrus

Amygdala Connections
Cerebral cortex
Olfactory system
Thalamus
Brainstem reticular formation

Stria
terminalis

Hypothalamus

AMYGDALA

Ventral Amygdalofugal
fibers

Regions of the Amygdala
• Large basolateral region:
Provides direct input to basal ganglia and
motor system.

• Small corticomedial group of nuclei:
Related to olfactory cortex.

• Medial and central nuclei:
Connected to hypothalamus.

Amygdala Inputs
Olfactory
System

Temporal Lobe
(associated with visual,
auditory, tactile senses)

AMYGDALA
Corticomedial Nuclear
Group
Basolateral Nuclear
Group
Central Nucleus

Brainstem (viscerosensory relay
Nuclei: solitary nucleus
and parbrachial nucleus)

Ventral
Amygdalofugal
Fibers

Amygdala Outputs
Stria Terminalis

Septal Nuclei
Hypothalamus

AMYGDALA
Corticomedial Nuclear
Group

Dorsal Medial Thalamic Nucleus
Nucleus Accumbens
Hypothalamus

Basolateral Nuclear
Group
Central Nucleus

Nuclei of
ANS
Ventral
Amygdalofugal
Fibers

Ventral
Amygdalofugal
Fibers

Functions of the Amygdala
• Relate environmental stimuli to
coordinated behavioral autonomic and
endocrine responses seen in speciespreservation.
• Responses include:
Feeding and drinking
Agnostic (fighting) behavior
Mating and maternal care
Responses to physical or emotional stresses.

Limbic System and Basal Nuclei
Anterior Cingulate Gyrus
Orbitofrontal Areas (10, 11)

Medial and lateral temporal lobe
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Entorhinal cortex (24)

Ventral Pallidum
Medial Globus Pallidus
Pars Reticularis
(Substantia nigra)

Ventral Striatum
(nucleus accumbens)
Caudate Nucleus
(head)

Ventral Anterior Nucleus
Dorsomedial Nucleus

Papez Circuit (Emotions)
Fornix

Mammillary bodies
Other hypothalamic nuclei
Septal nuclei
Substantia innominata
(Basal nucleus of Meynert)
Hippocampal Formation
(hippocampus
and dentate gyrus)

Parahippocampal Gyrus

Neocortex

Mammillothalamic
tract

Anterior Thalamic
nuclear group

Cortex of Cingulate Gyrus

Emotion
• A state of arousal involving facial and body
changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals,
subjective feelings, and tendencies...
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