Chapters 5, 6, 7
All concepts and vocabulary are fair game in Chapters 5-7
Chapter Five: …………..
Evaluate the importance of membranes to the homeostasis of the cell, emphasizing their various functions Explain how the properties of the lipid bilayer govern many properties of the cell membrane (ie understand the chemical lipid bilayer structure—what does “hydrophobic” and “hydrophilic” mean?) Discuss the general types, functions, and importance of membrane proteins. Describe the components of a solution.
Contrast the processes of passive and active transport, including diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport and bulk transport. How might temperature play a role in these processes? Which molecules will move across the membrane freely? Which may need to utilize facilitated diffusion? Be able to solve problems involving osmosis and diffusion: for example, predict whether cells will swell or shrink under various osmotic conditions (iso- vs. hyper- vs. hypotonic solutions). Draw on your lab experiments for practical application! Use key terminology to describe transport processes (i.e. the tonicity of the solution) Describe the sodium-potassium pump—what type of transport is this useful for? Compare endocytotic and exocytotic transport mechanisms in bulk transport. Metabolism
Describe metabolism— (what are other words we have used for these processes? Define energy and use examples to contrast potential energy and kinetic energy. State the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and discuss the implications of these laws as they relate to organisms Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions, and give examples of how they may be coupled Discuss the central role of ATP in the overall energy metabolism of the cell. How does ATP perform work? Explain how an enzyme lowers the required energy of activation for a reaction (what is activation energy?). What is an enzyme-substrate complex and what is its importance? Describe the specific ways in which enzymes are regulated (i.e. how does temperature, pH, etc. affect enzyme function?) What are cofactors and coenzymes? Reversible vs. irreversible inhibition?
Chapter 6: Respiration
Make sure to have a good understanding of:
Redox reactions and the use of H+ and electron transfer
FADH2 and NADH and how they relate to oxidation and reduction? The structure and function of the mitochondria—what is it’s job and it’s structure (matrix, cristae, PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER!!!) Define synthesis and decompostion and understand which is endergonic and which is exergonic—how are these processes related to cellular respiration? Write the reaction of aerobic respiration (the molecular formula indicating reactants and products!) Show where, in the overall formula of aerobic respiration, which reactant becomes oxidized and which product becomes reduced List and give an overview of the four stages of aerobic respiration—know the steps, reactants (what we begin each stage with!) and products for EACH STAGE Indicate where each stage of aerobic respiration takes place in a eukaryotic cell Understand the electron transport chain, define chemiosmosis, and explain how a gradient of protons (H+) is established across the inner mitochondrial membrane Describe the process by which the proton gradient drives ATP synthesis in chemiosmosis (Why a build-up of H+ in the intermembrane space drives ATP synthase to do it’s job). Describe ATP synthase and it’s importance
Add up the energy captured (as ATP, NADH, and FADH2) in each stage of aerobic respiration Summarize (briefly) how the products of protein and lipid catabolism enter the same metabolic pathway that oxidizes glucose. Compare and contrast aerobic to anaerobic respiration and fermentation, including the mechanism of ATP formation, the final electron acceptor, and the end products—how is this different from aerobic respiration? Where does anaerobic respiration take place in the cell? Why don’t humans utilize this pathway more readily (i.e. how efficient is it?)
Chapter 7: Photosynthesis
Make sure to have a good understanding of:
The nature of light and the absorption spectrum
The four main pigments utilized in photosynthesis
Redox reactions (loss of electrons = oxidation, gain of electrons = reduction) NADPH and how is it related to oxidation and reduction
The structure and function of the chloroplast—what is it’s job and it’s structure (thylakoid, stroma, PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER!!!) Know all the parts and steps of photosynthesis discussed in class—light dependent and independent (Calvin-Benson) reactions, photosystems I & II, electron transport chain, formation of oxygen from photolysis, etc!! Please know the reactants and products for the noncyclic light dependent reactions and light independent (Calvin-Benson Cycle) reactions, as well as the overall equation for photosynthesis. Be familiar with the following molecules: O2, ATP, ADP + P, NADPH, NADP+, RuBP, CO2 How does ATP Synthase function to form ATP from ADP + P?
What membrane transport process drives H+ from low to high concentration across the thylakoid membrane? Where does the energy come from to drive this reaction? What membrane transport process drives H+ from high to low concentration across the thylakoid membrane through ATP Synthase?
Important ideas to keep in mind while studying:
Much of the information from these chapters are interrelated~ be able to draw connections between chapters!
How does a selectively permeable membrane affect not only the cell as a whole, but also cellular reactions such as respiration ~ i.e. connect diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, etc to what we are studying with our ETC and mitochondrial membrane in cell respiration and thylakoid membrane in photosynthesis! How do endergonic and exergonic processes we spoke about in earlier chapters ultimately relate to the formation of ATP energy? What is the importance of coenzymes? –i.e. how are NADPH, NADH, FADH2 important in our reactions? Have a strong understanding of redox reactions~ respiration and photosynthesis are essentially very long oxidation/reduction reactions!!!
best of luck and happy studies