Top-Rated Free Essay

Lecture Exam Two Study Objectives: Chapters 5, 6, 7

Satisfactory Essays
Bi 101 Lecture Exam Two Study Objectives:
Chapters 5, 6, 7

All concepts and vocabulary are fair game in Chapters 5-7

Chapter Five: …………..

Membranes
Evaluate the importance of membranes to the homeostasis of the cell, emphasizing their various functions
Explain how the properties of the lipid bilayer govern many properties of the cell membrane (ie understand the chemical lipid bilayer structure—what does “hydrophobic” and “hydrophilic” mean?)
Discuss the general types, functions, and importance of membrane proteins.
Describe the components of a solution.
Contrast the processes of passive and active transport, including diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport and bulk transport. How might temperature play a role in these processes?
Which molecules will move across the membrane freely? Which may need to utilize facilitated diffusion?
Be able to solve problems involving osmosis and diffusion: for example, predict whether cells will swell or shrink under various osmotic conditions (iso- vs. hyper- vs. hypotonic solutions). Draw on your lab experiments for practical application!
Use key terminology to describe transport processes (i.e. the tonicity of the solution)
Describe the sodium-potassium pump—what type of transport is this useful for?
Compare endocytotic and exocytotic transport mechanisms in bulk transport.
Metabolism
Describe metabolism— (what are other words we have used for these processes?
Define energy and use examples to contrast potential energy and kinetic energy.
State the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and discuss the implications of these laws as they relate to organisms
Distinguish between exergonic and endergonic reactions, and give examples of how they may be coupled
Discuss the central role of ATP in the overall energy metabolism of the cell. How does ATP perform work?
Explain how an enzyme lowers the required energy of activation for a reaction (what is activation energy?). What is an enzyme-substrate complex and what is its importance?
Describe the specific ways in which enzymes are regulated (i.e. how does temperature, pH, etc. affect enzyme function?)
What are cofactors and coenzymes? Reversible vs. irreversible inhibition?

Chapter 6: Respiration
Make sure to have a good understanding of:
Redox reactions and the use of H+ and electron transfer
FADH2 and NADH and how they relate to oxidation and reduction?
The structure and function of the mitochondria—what is it’s job and it’s structure (matrix, cristae, PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER!!!)
Define synthesis and decompostion and understand which is endergonic and which is exergonic—how are these processes related to cellular respiration?
Write the reaction of aerobic respiration (the molecular formula indicating reactants and products!)
Show where, in the overall formula of aerobic respiration, which reactant becomes oxidized and which product becomes reduced
List and give an overview of the four stages of aerobic respiration—know the steps, reactants (what we begin each stage with!) and products for EACH STAGE
Indicate where each stage of aerobic respiration takes place in a eukaryotic cell
Understand the electron transport chain, define chemiosmosis, and explain how a gradient of protons (H+) is established across the inner mitochondrial membrane
Describe the process by which the proton gradient drives ATP synthesis in chemiosmosis (Why a build-up of H+ in the intermembrane space drives ATP synthase to do it’s job).
Describe ATP synthase and it’s importance
Add up the energy captured (as ATP, NADH, and FADH2) in each stage of aerobic respiration
Summarize (briefly) how the products of protein and lipid catabolism enter the same metabolic pathway that oxidizes glucose.
Compare and contrast aerobic to anaerobic respiration and fermentation, including the mechanism of ATP formation, the final electron acceptor, and the end products—how is this different from aerobic respiration?
Where does anaerobic respiration take place in the cell? Why don’t humans utilize this pathway more readily (i.e. how efficient is it?)

Chapter 7: Photosynthesis
Make sure to have a good understanding of:
The nature of light and the absorption spectrum
The four main pigments utilized in photosynthesis
Redox reactions (loss of electrons = oxidation, gain of electrons = reduction)
NADPH and how is it related to oxidation and reduction
The structure and function of the chloroplast—what is it’s job and it’s structure (thylakoid, stroma, PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER!!!)
Know all the parts and steps of photosynthesis discussed in class—light dependent and independent (Calvin-Benson) reactions, photosystems I & II, electron transport chain, formation of oxygen from photolysis, etc!!
Please know the reactants and products for the noncyclic light dependent reactions and light independent (Calvin-Benson Cycle) reactions, as well as the overall equation for photosynthesis.
Be familiar with the following molecules: O2, ATP, ADP + P, NADPH, NADP+, RuBP, CO2
How does ATP Synthase function to form ATP from ADP + P?
What membrane transport process drives H+ from low to high concentration across the thylakoid membrane? Where does the energy come from to drive this reaction?
What membrane transport process drives H+ from high to low concentration across the thylakoid membrane through ATP Synthase?

Important ideas to keep in mind while studying:
Much of the information from these chapters are interrelated~ be able to draw connections between chapters!

For example:
How does a selectively permeable membrane affect not only the cell as a whole, but also cellular reactions such as respiration ~ i.e. connect diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, etc to what we are studying with our ETC and mitochondrial membrane in cell respiration and thylakoid membrane in photosynthesis!
How do endergonic and exergonic processes we spoke about in earlier chapters ultimately relate to the formation of ATP energy?
What is the importance of coenzymes? –i.e. how are NADPH, NADH, FADH2 important in our reactions?
Have a strong understanding of redox reactions~ respiration and photosynthesis are essentially very long oxidation/reduction reactions!!!

best of luck and happy studies 

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    June 13 Membranes

    • 887 Words
    • 3 Pages

    The phospholipid bilayer also contains proteins (intrinsic) which acts as a carrier to transport water-soluble substances across the membrane. Some proteins such as carrier proteins are also embedded in the bilayer. When a molecule that is specific to the protein, it binds to the protein, which causes the carrier protein to change shape in a way that the molecule is released inside the membrane. This occurs in facilitated diffusion where molecules move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration, using no external energy. The membrane size can also affect the rate of diffusion. The thicker the membrane, the slower the rate of diffusion.…

    • 887 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    1. Why do you think it is important to have a membrane surrounding each of our trillions of cells? Expect varying answers, but the idea is have the students understand the plasma membrane separates the cells from their environment and each other while also regulating the material within each cell. 2. What are two distinctive physical features of phospholipids? Heads are polar (water soluble, hydrophilic) and tails are nonpolar (water hydrophobic).…

    • 1369 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    The purpose of these experiments is to examine the driving force behind the movement of substances across a selective or semiperpeable plasma membrane. Experiment simulations examine substances that move passively through a semipermeable membrane, and those that require active transport. Those that move passively through the membrane will do so in these simulations by facilitated diffusion and filtration. The plasma membrane’s structure is composed in such a way that it can discriminate as to which substances can pass into the cell. This enables nutrients to enter the cell, while keeping unwanted substances out. Active transport requires that the cell provide energy in the form of ATP to power the transport of substances through the membrane. During passive transport the substances move through the plasma membrane because of pressure or concentration differences between the interior and exterior of the cell. Facilitated diffusion relies on carrier proteins, and occurs when molecules are either not lipid soluble or are too large to pass through the pores of the membrane. Solutes have to combine with the carrier proteins in the membrane, and then they can be transported down the concentration gradient. Filtration is the movement of solute and water molecules across a membrane due to a pressure gradient. Active transport occurs when substances are not moving along the concentration gradient, are not lipid soluble, or are too large to pass through the membrane’s pores.…

    • 2033 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    3. What is one of the cell membrane’s jobs? It controls how substances can move in and out of the cell…

    • 726 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Rubber Egg Lab

    • 893 Words
    • 3 Pages

    1.Discuss the structure of the plasma membrane and explain the process of active and passive transport through the membrane.…

    • 893 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Facilitated diffusion is also the net movement of substances moving down their concentration gradient, but with the help of carrier proteins. Which are proteins that bind to substance or molecule and help it transport across the membrane. In this experiment we will use different concentrations of glucose to show the affects carrier proteins have on its…

    • 1906 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Facilitated diffusion depends on passive transport. Molecules cross cell membrane by diffusion. A type of diffusion is osmosis. If no energy is input into the system during diffusion, the molecules will reach a state of equilibrium. The purpose of this experiment was to study why the death occurred among those who drank salt water.…

    • 291 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Betalin - Beetroot

    • 1357 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The study can contribute to biology as can tell us how the cell membrane structure works and the durability of the membrane. It can contribute to medical units to help us treat illnesses as the cell membrane is where chemicals reactions happen. The cell membrane also acts as an immunity marker to the immune system – recognising that the cell isn’t a foreign body.…

    • 1357 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    a. diffusion b. facilitated diffusion c. osmosis d. active transport e. hypotonic f. isotonic g. hypertonic 2. What is the main difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion? Simple diffusion moves molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration without an input of energy. Facilitated Diffusion follows the same rules as regular diffusion (higher to lower concentration and no energy input), but uses protein carrier molecules to allow substances that are fat soluble to diffuse through the cell membrane. 3. What is the main difference between facilitated diffusion and active transport? Facilitated Diffusion molecules move from a high concentration to a low concentration without the requirement of ATP. The movement of molecules AGAINST the concentration gradient with the use of energy (eg, ATP) 4. In the “Simple Diffusion” experiment, which solute(s) passed through the MWCO 20 membrane? None of the substances passed through the MWCO 20 membrane. The molecular weight cut…

    • 896 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Cell membranes are a bilayer make up of phospholipids, proteins, and cholesterol. Its main function is to regulate what comes in and out of the cell by means of diffusion, transport proteins and protein channels. Trans membrane proteins transport polar solutes across hydrophobic regions of the bilayer. Diffusion occurs when solutes are transferred from a high concentration of that solute to a lower concentration of solutes. Solutes do not depend on the concentration of other solutes, which allows the cell to take in oxygen while releasing carbon dioxide. Osmosis is a special type of diffusion, which occurs when water is diffused across the membrane. This can be affected by how hydrophilic a solute is on either side of the membrane.…

    • 302 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Active Transport within a cell membrane requires the use of energy and moves molecules from low to high concentrations using protein carriers. Types of active transport include:…

    • 435 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    D) They are free to depart from the membrane and dissolve in the surrounding solution.…

    • 618 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    E. Use the First Law of Thermodynamics to explain how chemical reactions transfer energy from one molecule to another…

    • 1279 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Mg2 Unit 9 Study Guide

    • 1084 Words
    • 5 Pages

    8. The phospholipid bilayer has a hydrophylic exterior and a hydrophobic interior, it does not allow polar charged molecules to pass through but it does allow small uncharged molecules to pass through. There are proteins and cholesterol in the membrane. Since it is semi-fluid at low temperatures cholesterol can keep the phospholipids apart, where at higher temperatures it brings the phospholipids together, stabilizing the…

    • 1084 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The purpose of this experiment is to have a better understanding of the subject matter and to understand the difference between active and passive cellular transport. It will also help to define diffusion and describe the process that occurs when certain solutes come in contact and are either stopped or move through the plasma membrane.…

    • 1372 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays