1.Nature lends a helping hand by providing animals with a set of built in inherited skills that functions at birth or shortly thereafter. * These skills are called reflexes. Some reflexes like sucking provide necessary biological supports. Other reflexes are ready made, swift and simple reactions to stimuli that pose a potential threat. * An example of a fixed action pattern would be salmon swimming up stream to spawn or birds seasonal migration. 2.Learning is a way that a species profit from its experience : a mechanism by which past experience guides future behavior. In the process of learning the individuals behavior is modified. 3.Ivan Pavlov was initially interested in digestion and the action of the salivary glands. * In his famous experiment, Ivan Pavlov noticed dogs began to salivate in response to a tone after the sound had been repeatedly paired with the presentation of food. * Pavlov quickly realized that this was a learned response and set out to further investigate the conditioning process. 4.Classical conditioning, where an original stimulus elicits an automatic unlearned response both stimulus and response happen naturally, they are unconditioned. * Then second neutral stimulus that never elicits the unconditional response by itself is introduced just before the presentation of the original stimulus. If the neutral or signaling stimulus were still there, we say that conditioning has taken place. * The arbitrary neutral stimulus becomes a conditional stimulus. The reverse is also true. Classical conditioning can be so powerful that it can actually make as sick by suppressing the body’s immune system. 5.According to Edward Thorndike it’s the consequences of what an individual does that most influences the learning process. * Thorndike Law of effect states that learning is controlled by its consequence are selected and repeated while these leading to bad consequences or no consequences at all are not...
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