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Kingdom Monera: General Characteristics and Physiology

By WebUserName Oct 01, 2013 872 Words

Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University

The Kingdom Monera

Submitted By:
Glenn Mark B. Martin
Submitted to:
Lapridad Julieta D. Reyes, Ph.D.
The members of the Kingdom Monera are prokaryotes and Some are the most primitive type of all cell to have evolved on earth. They lack organelles such as nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, and lysosomes. Cell wall contains peptidoglycan composed of sugar linked by amino acids. They have a single circular chromosome located in a nucleoid. The main chromosomes consists of circular segments of DNA called plasmids which carries genes antibiotic resistance and alleles of genes also found on the main chromosome. Reproduction is mainly asexual called binary fission which produces genetically identical copies of the original cell. Some prokaryotes transfer genetic material through sex pili from a donor to a transformation , prokaryote picks up from the environment free pieces of DNA secreted by live bacteria or released by dead bacteria then incorporates the genes into its own genetic makeup. In transduction, a virus serves as a vector in transporting genes from one organism to another. The size of prokaryotic cells range from about 0.2 to 10 micrometers in diameter (0.0001) to 0.003 millimeters).

General Characteristics
1-10 µm long and 1-5 µm³ in volume
No membrane bound nucleus; live in hypotonic fluids
With cell wall which is made of peptidoglycan polymers (murein) With capsule, a thick, mucus like coating which can resist attack by the host’s immune system Pili (Latin for “hairs”), thread like which are 1-2 µm long, adheres the bacteria on the surface of the host cells and some pili participates in sexual reproduction of bacteria called conjugation the plasma membrane beneath the cell wall is a selective barrier to the movement of substances in and out of the cell; it also provides attachment for internal structures nucleoid region, where its single, circular DNA is located – mesosome, convoluted, whorled membrane during cell division reproduction may be :

1. asexual
a. Budding
b. binary fission
2. sexual
a. conjugation – involves a meale cell with a sex pilus, a recipient female cell and transfer of an F factor plasmid b. transformation - DNA fragments released by one cell is taken up and incorporated into the DNA of another c. transduction - DNA fragments released by one cell is picked up by and carried to the recipient cell 3. Spore formation – endospores are heavily encapsulated spore within another cell, it contains only cellular components needed for achive metabolism once the cell is in a favourable environment known to survive for over 1,000 years and beyond an hour of boiling, frozen and in some, bombardment of ionizing gamma radiation.

Heterotrophic bacteria – consume waste products and dead organic matter They are said to be parasites - organisms that feed on living host consequently harming them Autotrophic bacteria – derive energy from either photosynthesis or oxidation of inorganic compounds

A. Fubacteria - are also called true bacteria
- most diverse and abundant among prokaryotes
- most are named after their cellular shape
- for instance, rod-shaped are bacillus, sphere-shaped are coccus Helix-shaped are spirillum

a) Spirochetes – are helical or cork-screw shaped
- move by snake like lashing
- live in aquatic environment
- parasitic
- example: Treponerma pallidum – causes syphilis

b) Myxobacteria - smalln, unflagellated, rod –shaped - glide along slime tracks - group together to form fruiting bodies where

some develops into a myxospores thrive in soil
play an important role in decomposition

c) Actinomycetes – biggest group among eubacteria
- filamentous
- cause Hansen’s desease or leprosy and tuberculosis
- produce antibiotics like streptomycin and erythromycin

d) Rickettsias – the tiniest among the prokaryotes
- parasites in two alternating hosts: arthropods lice, ticks, And flea transmit the bacteria through their bite to mammals or birds can cause typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever

e) Chlamydias – simple prokaryotes
- cause venereal infections, frachoma
- a leading cause of blindness

f) Mycoplasma – the smallest living cells
- lacks cell wall usually anaerobic
- resistant to npenicillin
- in colony, forms long, filaments, globules, and rings
- cause pleuropnemonia

B) Cyanobacteria – second major group, mode of 200 species - are single rod-shaped cells in clusters or
along filamentous chain
- contain chlorophyll a, carotenoids,
and red and blue pigments known as
phycoerythrins and phycocyanins which gives the
organism color hues like yellow red, violets and deep blue

C) Chloroxybacteria – live inside tunicates or as free living in shallow lakes - light green, single cell
- contains chlorophylls a and b; yellow and orange carotenoids - resembles chloroplast of plants and green algae

D) Archaebacteria – they are believed to be the oldest of all living organism - it includes three groups:

a) Methanobacteria or Methane Bacteria – are anaerobic
Derive energy by oxidizing H2 to H20 and reducing CO2 to CH4 Some are found in decaying vegetation in streams, lakes,
and bogs where they produce “swamp gas”
Some thrive in cattle’s intestine, which belch methane gas Some lives even in the deepest seafloor and some in
hot sulphur springs or in smolderings piles of mine tailings

b) Sulfur-dependent Bacteria or Sulfobales – lives by oxidizing or reducing sulfur They may also thrive in places with high temperature

C) Halobacteria – can survive high salt environment like salt lake or salt pans

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