IT Reviewer

Topics: Microsoft Windows, Windows NT, Windows XP Pages: 10 (2209 words) Published: December 12, 2013
What is computer?
An electronic device designed to manipulate data in order to achieve a desired result based on the stored program or instructions.

Why do we need computers?
In education
assist teachers in teaching their students easily and quickly help students to do their assignment easily with the use of computer (typing and surfing)

In work
less paper works, searching, communication via video conferencing, etc.

surfing, games, communicating through the internet

Three measurements to assess the level of computer literacy
When a person begin to study computers, they will know the importance of it Knowledge
Studying computer will give the person idea on how it function and the person or students needs to study the function of it Interaction
The best way to understand computers is by using it directly for some simple applications like surfing, mailing (email) chatting electronically.

Three fundamental characteristics of computer:

Computer provides the processing speed essential to our fast paced society Reliability
Capable of producing accurate and timely results
Computer provides up-to-date alternatives that will make the user select the best option Storage capability-capable of storing tremendous amounts of data which can be located and retrieved efficiently

Uses of computer
Graphics* Government
Retailing* Home
Energy* Health and Medicine
Paperwork* Robotics
Transportation* Sciences
Law Enforcement* Connectivity
Money * Human Connection

History of Computer
Zeroeth Generation- Mechanical Computer (1642-1945)
Pascal (1623-1662)- first person who build the Working Calculating Machine Hand operating machine
Can only do Addition and subtraction
Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von_Leibniz (1646-1716)
Build a machine that can multiply and divide
Condensed the two machine to build a four-function machine
Charles Babbage (1792-1871)
Build a different engine that can compute tables of numbers useful for naval navigation Build another machine, the Analytical Engine
Had four components
1. Store (memory)
Consists of 1000 words of 50 decimal digits
2. Mill (computation unit)
Accept operands from store then compute (add, subtract, multiply and divide) 3. Input section (punch card reader)
4. Output section (punched and printed output)
It can read instructions from punched cards and carried them out Programmable and needs software
Ada Augusta Lovelace- first computer programmer
Programming language Ada is named in her honor
Conrad Zuse (1930)- built a series of Automatic Calculating Machines John Atanasoff- built an amazing machine
Used binary arithmetic and had capacitor memory that he called “jogging the memory” Zuse Stibbitz and Atanasoff- designing automatic calculators Howard Aiken (1944)- built his first machine, MARK I (inspired by Babbage’s work) Has 72 words of 23 decimal digits each, and had an instruction time of 6 seconds.

First Generation – Vacuum Tubes (1940-1956)
The first computer used for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory It takes the entire room
Very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951. Consists of 18, 000 vacuum tubes and 15000 relay

Weighted 30 tons and consumed 140 kilowatts of power
Had 20 registers, each capable of holding 10-digit decimal number 6000 multi switches and connecting a multitude of sockets with veritable forest of jumper cables Second Generation- Transistors (1956-1964)

It replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers Was invented at Bell labs (1947) by John Bardeen,...
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