1. Most Arabs are Nomads
• The Arabian Peninsula is mainly a dry, rocky plateau.
• Most of the peoples in Arabia were nomads called Bedouin.
• There was no written law among the tribes.
• Some towns became centers of trade.
2. Arabs Follow Different Religions
• Tribal gods
• Judaism and Christianity
3. Mohammed Established a New Faith
• He received his first revelation from God
• He rejected the many deities of the tribal religions
• He offered a new monotheistic faith
• Last of the prophets of God.
4. The Koran/Qur'an Outlines Muslim Beliefs
• Translations from Arabic are discouraged
• Muslims view Allah as the creator and ruler of heaven and earth, an all-powerful God who is merciful, compassionate and just.
• Muslims view Mohammed as entirely human, not divine.
5. Muslims have religious obligations
• The Five Pillars of Islam are the five religious duties expected of every Muslim.
• The five pillars are mentioned individually throughout the Qur'an and Muhammad listed them together in the Hadith when he was asked to define Islam.
• Fulfillment of the Five Pillars is believed to bring rewards both in this life and in the afterlife.
6. Mohammed flees from Mecca
• Community leader in Medina
• Persecution of Arabian Jews
7. Islam makes converts by force
• Mohammed began to preach a holy war against pagans and nonbelievers
• Unity of the Arabian tribes into a powerful force dedicated to Allah and Islam
8. Mohammed's successors extend Islamic power
• Under the first four caliphs; Muslim armies conquered Palestine, Syria, Egypt, and most of Persia.
9. New rulers cause a division in Islam
• A member of a powerful Umayyad family claimed the caliphate
• Rivalry between Umayyad and Shi'a
• Shi'ite Muslims introduces Sunni
10. The Umayyads create an empire
• East: India and borders of China
• West: North Africa and Spain
• North: Battle of Tours
• Movement of the