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Intoduation to Solid Waste Engineering

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DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY ENGINEERING KULLIYYAH OF ENGINEERING
SOLID WASTE ENGINEERING
(BTE 4229)
Introduction

Emeritus Professor Dato` Wira Ir. Dr. Md. Noor Bin Hj Salleh
COURSE SYNOPSIS
Exposure of student to the principles and practices associated with management of solid waste, and environmentally safe disposal of solid waste
COURSE OBJECTIVES
Exposure to information relevant to the engineering and design of waste management systems.
Characterizing the composition of Solid Waste from various sources
Applies current methodologies employed in the handling, storage, collection and transfer, processing and resource recovery

Analyze a solid waste disposal problem and design the individual components.
Plan for overall handling of the solid waste management problem
Integrate individual design elements as required by the ideal sanitary landfill system

Mid-Term Examination 25%
Tests 10%
Assignment 5%
Mini Design Project and Presentation 10%
Final Examination 50%

Solid waste can be defined as: The useless and unwanted products in the solid state derived from the activities of and discarded by society. It is produced by-product of production processes or arise from domestic or commercial sector when objects or materials are discarded after use

Any scrap material or other unwanted surplus substance or rejected products, arising from application of any process Any substance required to be disposed of as being broken, worn out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled Any other material that is required by the authority to be disposed of

A material is disposed of it is : Discharged, deposited, injected, dumped, spilled, leaked or placed into or any land or water so that such material or any constituent thereof may enter the environment or be emitted into the air or discharged into groundwater or surface water.

Garbage : The term given principally to food waste, but may include other degradable organic waste
Rubbish : Consists of combustible and non combustible solid waste, excluding food wastes.

3. Refuse : The collective term for solid waste (both garbage and rubbish)
4. Litter : Odds and ends, bits of paper, wrapping materials, bottles etc.

5. Others : - Sludge from wastewater treatment plant - discarded solid from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operation
e.g. Waste tires, scrap metal, furniture, toys, construction and demolition debris, empty cans, paints, appliances, glass, plastics et

Biodegradable waste : Food and kitchen waste, green waste Recycled material : Paper, glass, bottles cans, metals, plastics Inert waste : Construction and demolition waste, dirt, rocks, debris. Composite wastes : waste clothing, waste plastics. Domestic Hazardous waste (or household hazardous) and toxic waste : medication, e-waste, paints, chemicals, light bulbs, florescent tubes, spray cans, fertilizers and pesticides, batteries, containers etc,

Municipal Solid Wastes
Domestic Waste
Commercial waste
Community waste
Construction waste
Institutional waste

b) Hazardous Wastes

c) Industrial Wastes

- Solids waste is a major environmental problems in Malaysia 23000 tons of waste is produced daily (report 2008) in 2020, it is expected to rise to 30000 tons, due to increased population and development. only 5% of the waste is being recycled

National average 0.5 – 0.8kg/person/day

City average 1.7 kg/person/day

9th Malaysia Plan estimated about 45% of the waste is made up of food waste, 24% of plastic, 7% is paper, 6% iron and glass and 18% others.

waste management in Malaysia still very “poor
Outdated documentation of waste generation rates and its composition Inefficient storage and collection system Disposal of municipal waste with toxic and hazardous wastes Indiscriminate disposal or dumping of wastes and inefficient utilization of disposal site space.

litter at roadsides drains clogged up with rubbish rivers filled with filthy garbage, chemical waste. plastic bags floating in streams Dumping or burying of toxic material. Situation is reducing our environment capacity to sustain life. Lack of awareness and knowledge among Malaysian Community. Ignorant about the effect that improper SWM will worsen the problem.

Climate change is caused by emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) the manufacturing , distribution and use of products, including waste generation results in emission of GHG that affects the Earth’s climate.

The Earth’s atmosphere contains many types of gases, including GHG. GHG absorbs and retains heat from the sun. They regulate the Earth’s climate by holding warmth in an atmospheric blanket around the planet’s surface. This is called Greenhouse Effect. Without GHG the average temperature on earth would be -2 degrees F, instead of current 57 Degrees F. Human activities have released additional GHG which upsets the natural atmospheric balance of GHG, hence, resulting in increase of global temperature.

Solid waste affects climate change through landfill “methane emission”. In landfills, organic waste is left to decay anaerobically.

GOVERNMENT’S EFFORTS

The Government Of Malaysia has adopted a National Strategies Plan for solid waste management with emphasis on the upgrading of unsanitary landfills

GOVERNMENT’S EFFORTS

In April, 2007 there were 291 landfill sites all over Malaysia.
112 of these are not in operation 179 still operating Malaysian states are switching to incineration

Waste generation Waste generation encompasses activities in which materials are identified as no longer being of value and are either thrown out or gathered together for disposal.

Waste handling and separation, storage and processing at the source.
Waste handling and separation involves the activities with management of waste until they are placed in storage containers for collection. Handling also incompasses the movement of loaded container to the point of collection. Separation of waste components is an important step in the handling and storage of solid waste at the source.

Collection the functional element of collection includes not only the gathering of solid waste and recyclable material, but also the transport of these material, after collection, to the location where the collection vehicle is emptied. This location may be a materials processing facility, a transfer station or a landfill disposal site.

Separation and processing and transformation of solid wastes. The types of means and facilities that are now used for the recovery of waste materials that have been separated at the source include curbside collection, drop off and buy back centers. The separation and processing of wastes that have been separated at the source and the separation of commingled wastes usually occur at a materials recovery facility, transfer stations, combustion facilities and disposal sites.

Transfer and transport This element involves two steps: i) The transfer of waste from smaller collection vehicles to the larger transport equipment. ii) The subsequent transport of the wastes, usually over long distances, to a processing or disposal site.

Disposal Today the disposal of waste by land filling or land spreading is the ultimate fate of all solid waste, whether they are residential waste collected and transported directly to a landfill site, residual materials from materials recovery facilities (MRFs), residue from the combustion of solid waste, compost or other substances from various solid waste processing facilities. A modern sanitary landfill is not a dump; it is an engineered facility used for disposing of solid wastes on land without creating nuisances or hazards to public health or safety, such as the breeding of insects and the contamination of ground water

Energy Generation Municipal solid waste can be used to generate energy. Several technologies have been developed that make the processing of MSW for energy generation cleaner and more economical than ever before, including landfill gas capture, combustion, pyrolysis, gasification and plasma arc gasification. While older waste incineration plants emitted high levels of pollutants, recent regulatory changes and new technologies have significantly reduced this concern. EPA regulation in 1995 and 2000 under the Clean Air Act have succeeded in reducing emissions of dioxins from waste-to-energy facilities by more than 99 percent below 1990 levels, while mercury emissions have been reduced by over 90 percent. The EPA noted these improvements in 2003, citing waste-to-energy as a power source “with less environment impact than almost any other source of electricity.”

Many cities are implementing “sustainability” project.
Reducing waste waste as raw materials for building homes waste to generate energy waste to nourish crops.

58% of city’s household, commercial and industrial waste is to be recycled. 24% is to be incinerated
18% is to be deposited in landfill

Waste producers separate all waste at source of generation. hazardous waste separated from waste meant for incinerator or landfills and must either be recycled or treated at specialized facilities waste generators are required to reduce the volume of waste sent to incinerators or landfills by introducing new technologies, processes or other measures.

Number of landfills reduced from 30 to 3 more than 50% of city commercial, industrial and demolition waste is recycled. 50 000 tons of combustible waste previously deposited in landfills, are now incinerated in plants that convert waste to energy

War on waste Save our environment Save our earth

Mankind depends on the environment to sustain their lives

1. Tchoanaglous G ; Thiesen H,:and Vigil S (2002) “Integrated Solid Waste Management” McGraw Hill Inc
2. Master G.M (1998) “Introduction to Environment Engineering and Science” Prentice – Hall Inc
3. LaGrega M; Buckingham P,; Evanns J. (2000) “Hazardous Waste Management” McGraw Hill Inc
4. Shah K.L, (2000) “ Basics of solid and Hazardous Waste Management Technology” Practice- Hall Inc.

END

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