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Intellectual Disabilities

By acastillo10 Dec 09, 2013 1294 Words
intellectual disabilities
significant limitations in both intellectual functioning (IQ below 75) and adaptive behavior (conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills)   
Autism
developmental disability that significantly affects verbal and nonverbal communication, social interaction, and educational performance   
multiple disabilities
the combination of impairments which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education program solely for one of the impairments;   
Other health impaired
a student's health condition limits his strength, vitality, or alertness to such a degree that the student's educational progress is adversely affected   
MAP
making action plans; customizes students' educational programs to their specific visions, strengths, and needs   
SETT
framework for making assistive technology evaluation decisions: Students needs, interests, and abilities
Environment in which technology will be used
Tasks for which technology will be needed
Tools that might be needed to meet student's needs
  
Wraparound
refers to a philosophy of care that includes a definable planning process involving the child and family that results in a unique set of community services and natural supports individualized for that child and family to achieve a positive set of outcomes   

Peer Tutoring
involves pairing students one on one so students who have already developed certain skills can help teach those and other skills to less advanced students.   
Partial Participation
holds that students with multiple disabilites should not be denied all access to general education and other inclusive activities soley because of the impairments   
Student-directed learning strategies
strategies that teach students with and without disabilities to modify and regulate their own learning   
Antecedent cue regulation
type of student-directed learning strategy; provides visual and/or audio cues to support students to regulate their own behavior and to complete assigned tasks; can be a photograph, drawing/illustration, video clip, and actual items involved in the task   

task analysis
identifies the individual steps that, in combination, are required to perform a skill or activity; used to determine partial participation   
Functional behavioral assessment (FBA)
identifies specific relationships between a student's behaviors and the circumstances that trigger those behaviors, esp. those that impede the student's or others' ability to learn   
schoolwide positive behavior support
a systems-level and evidence-based method for improving valued social and learning outcomes for all students; 3 components: universal, group, and individual support   
conflict resolution
conflict resolution
  
problem-based learning
problem-based learning
  
social stories
a evidence-based approach for instructing students to anticipate changes and know how to respond to them;written by by educators, parents, or students and describe social situations, social cues, and appropriate responses to those cues   

neuroimaging
provides detailed pictures of various parts of the brain that are helpful in determining the presence of a disability   
self-esteem
a realistic for or reasonable impression of one-self
  
self-understanding
the ability to understand one's own actions
  
self-knowledge
knowledge of one's particular mental states, including one's beliefs, desires, and sensations   
self-awareness
ones understanding of onself as a unique individual and is
  
skaken baby syndrome
TBI that results when a caregiver has shaken a child violently, often in situations when the caregiver is frustrated because of the child's crying.   
appropriate instructional pacing
varying how fast you present info and how often you ask your students to respond, bearing in mind their differences in attention, info processing, and cognitive ability   
frequent student responses
Asking for frequent responses and require your students to respond through different formats so as to actively engage them in learning   
adequate processing time
allowing your students varying times to respond, taking into account their processing capacity and giving some students more "think" time than others   
monitoring responses
monitoring the quality and nature of your students' responses to determine if they are mastering the content of your course. If this monitoring suggests they are not, adjust your instruction immediately, not at the end of lesson   

speech reader
a student who is able to interpret words by watching the speaker's lips and facial movements without hearing the speaker's voice; his expressive speech will show problems with 1. articulation, 2. voice quality, and 3. tone   

sign language
uses combinations of hand, body, and facial movements to convey both words and concepts father than individual letters   
cued speech
alternative to sign language; supplements spoken English and is intened to make its features fully visible; uses 36 different cues to clarigy the 44 different sounds in English   
audiologist
person with special training in testing and measuring hearing and are able to evaluate the hearing of any child at any age.   
speech/language therapist
teach children to use their remaining hearing; educates students with hearing loss to use even their minimal residual hearing effectively   
neurologist
...
  
cochlear implant
an electronic device that is surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear and contains a magnet that couples to a magnet in a sound transmitter that is worn externally   
cloze procedure
involves the modification of a text of atleast 250 words by eliminating every fifth word and replacing it with a blank; offers quick and simple assessment of the match between reading materials and the student's abilities   

low vision
experienced by individuals with a visual impairment who CAN USE THEIR VISION AS A PRIMARY CHANNEL FOR LEARNING   
legally blind
refers to individuals whose central visual activity, when measured in both eyes and when they are wearing corrective lenses, is 20/200 or whose visual field is no more than 20 degrees   
orientation and mobility training
used to describe the two components of travel: knowing where you are and where you want to go, and the safe, efficient, graceful movement between two locations   
multidimensional model of intelligence
considers multiple domains of intelligence as contrasted to only intellectual ability or academic achievement; domains: 1.musical, 2.bodily-kinesthetic, 3.linguistic, 4.logical-mathematical, 5.spatial, 6.interpersonal, 7.intrapersonal   

acceleration
involves students' skipping one or more grades in order to exprience higher levels of instruction and/or attending a higher grade level program for part of the school day   
compacting the curriculum
involves first testing students to identify the content they have already mastered and then teaching them only the concepts that have not yet mastered   
curriculum extention
refers to efforts to expand the breadth and depth of the coverage of a given topic   
differentiated instruction
involves using different strategies such as flexible student instructional grouping, learning stations and learning centers, and two educators in the same classroom   
cluster grouping
involves grouping 3-6 students who are gifted and talented in the same general education classroom so that they can work together   
3 pros of acceleration and enrichment
1. Promotes universal design - students are able to learn and express their knowledge in a variety of ways. Educators use an expanded range of instructional strategies. 2. Students are challenged, their cognitive needs are met, and the strengths are focused on 3. Students learn the skills they need to be more creative and develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills   

2 cons of acceleration and enrichment
1. A student may not be physically, emotionally, or socially mature enough to be in a higher level class. 2. Acceleration is often the most difficult "first" strategy to use.   
principle of partial participation
1. Governs the education of M.D. students
2. Students should not be denied all access to general education and other inclusive activities soley because of their impairments 3. Rejects the all-or-none approach
4. Students can participate even if only partially...and learn and complete tasks if it is adapted to their strengths   
what it means to be qualified as "Other Health Impaired" under IDEA a student's health condition must limit his strength, vitality, or alertness to such a degree that the student's educational progress is adversely affected   

adaptive skill
Necessary skills for functioning daily; include the ability to care for ones self, communication skills, and social skills   
supports
the services, resources, and personal assistance that enable a person to develop, learn, and live effectively (can be intermittent, limited, extensive, or pervasive)   
five characteristics of students w/ multiple disabilities
1. intellectual functioning, 2. adaptive skills, 3. motor development, 4. sensory functioning, and 5. communication skills

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