Influences on Philippine Literature

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Historical Background

The Filipino Revolutionists won against the Spaniards who colonized us for more than 300 years. Our flag was hoisted on June 12, 1898 as a symbol of our independence. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was elected the first President of the Philippine Republic but this was short-lived. The Fil.-American was resulted in the defeat of Gen. Miguel Malvar in 1903. The peace movements started as early as 1900. Many Filipinos started writing again and the nationalism of the people remained undaunted.

Filipino writers went into all forms of literature like news, reporting, poetry, stories, plays, essays, and novels. Their writings clearly depicted their love of country and their longings for independence. The active arousal in the field of literature started to be felt in the following newspapers.

1. EL NUEVO DIA (The New Day). Established by Sergio Osmeña in 1900. The American censors twice banned this and threatened Osmeña with banishment because of his nationalistic writings.

2. EL GRITO DEL PUEBLO (The Call of the Nation). Established by Pascual Poblete in 1900.

3. EL RENACIMIENTO (The Rebirth). Founded by Rafael Palma in 1901.

There were also plays written then but after the first and second presentations, the Americans put a stop to this because of the consistent theme of nationalism. Included here were the following:

1. KAHAPON, NGAYON AT BUKAS (Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow). Written by Aurelio Tolentino depicting the suppression done by the Americans and their plan to colonize the Philippines.

2. TANIKALANG GINTO of Juan Abad.

3. MALAYA by Tomas Remigio.

4. WALANG SUGAT by Severino Reyes. A. Characteristics of Literature during This Period Three groups of writers contributed to Philippine Literature during this period.

During the first year of the American period, the languages used in writing were Spanish and Tagalog and the dialects of the different regions, but Spanish and Tagalog

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