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Iaps Exam Notes

By aabbyc Oct 13, 2012 649 Words
IAPS Final Exam
Chapter 1:
Social Science: the study of people as individuals and as members of groups such as families, tribes and communities.

Research methods: Case studies, experiments, sample surveys, interviews, observations (unstructured and structured, participant observation [used mainly by anthropologists] )

Chapter 2:
Physical anthropology:
-Darwin: evolution , natural selection
-Raymond Dart: skull = Australopithecus africanus
-Louis and Mary Leakey: earliest human beings lived in Africa -Donald Johanson: Lucy
Primates: opposable thumbs, 3D/binocular vision, high developed brain, aggression, territory Jane Goodall
Unique human characteristics: bipedalism (ability to walk upright over long distances and perform tasks while moving) ; complex/written language

Cultural anthropology:
Culture: the learned behaviours, beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals of a particular society or population. Margaret Mead: Nature vs Nurture (supported nurture)

ethnocentrism: tendency to judge other cultures by one’s own values (eg. Looking at another culture as strange or inferior) cultural relativism: respect and acceptance of other cultures •Archaeology

Applied anthropology
Anthropological linguistics

Chapter 3:
Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour and metal processes, and the factors that influence these processes •Structuralism: inner workings of the mind by conducting experiments on sensation, perception, and attention •Functionalism: the belief that mental characteristics develop to allow people to survive and adapt •Psychoanalysis: patients discuss their background, feelings, and experiences with a trained therapist •Behaviourism: the study of observable human reactions to the environment •Humanism: the emphasis in psychology on the unique quality of human beings, particularly their freedom and potential for personal growth •Cognitive psychology: the study of mental processes involved in memory, learning, and thinking -sensation

Learning: a change in knowledge or behaviour as a result of experience Conditioning: acquiring patterns of behaviour in the presence of an environmental stimulus Classical conditioning: Ivan Pavlov, unconditioned stimulus – food, unconditioned response – salivation, conditioned stimulus – bell, conditioned response – salivating in response to bell alone; Watson, baby Albert Operant conditioning: B.F. Skinner, rewards are more effective than punishments, positive reinforcement may have a more lasting impact Observational learning: attention, retention, reproduction, motivation – Bandura

Sleep: 4 stages every 90 minutes (REM – dreaming, 20 to 25 percent of sleep is REM sleep) Dreams: Freud-hidden meanings in dreams, etc.

Chapter 4:
Motivation: why we do things
Biological motivation
Social motivation
Freud: ego-conscious and rational part
Id- unconscious part, instincts
Superego-unconscious part, conscience
When we are born, the mind is made up of only the id. As we grow up, part of id is converted into ego and superego. -Freud tried hypnosis, thought childhood was important, free association Defense mechanisms: allows the mind to hide or change a problem so that it does not bother us in a conscious way. Jung: human behaviour often motivated by opposite tendencies Adler: lives are governed by the need to overcome feelings of inferiority Horney: conflicts develop as a result of feeling unsafe, unloved, or undervalued. Rejected Freud’s negative concept of women. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: physiological needs, safety and security needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, cognitive needs, aesthetic needs, need for self-fulfillment Emotions: cognitive component, physical component, behavioural component ; heredity, learning, maturity Love: passionate and companionate [3 major ingredients of love: passion, intimacy, commitment] oRomantic lovers, game-playing lovers, companionate lovers, possessive lovers, pragmatic lovers, altruistic lovers

Chapter 5:
Stress: physical and psychological response to circumstances in the environment that test our ability to cope oGeneral Adaptation Syndrome (Selye): three stages
oAlarm: adrenalin produced, body ready to fight or flee
oResistance: body is better able to deal with original source of stress, much lower resistance to other stresses oExhaustion: body’s resources are wearing down
oPositive stress = eustress
oCauses: making choices, physical problems, etc
oCoping: stress cognitive appraisal
Mental illness: a disorderly functioning of the mind
oAnxiety disorders: Generalized anxiety disorder, phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder oMood disorders: major depression, bipolar affective disorder oSchizophrenic disorders: schizophrenia
oPersonality disorders

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