1. How do convolutions of a human brain compare with those of a rat or dog brain? * they are nearly identical despite major differences in the brain's internal structure * the human brain has many more convolutions
* the lower animals have more convolutions and therefore fewer direct connections * human convolutions are less numerous, but larger
* humans have frontal lobes, other animals do not
2. Bilateral symmetry...
* is common in the animal kingdom
* is unique to humans
* is found only in old world primates, including humans * is apparently involved in the sense of equilibrium or balance * has been disproven by PET scans showing lateralization 3. How might lateralization contribute to a "control system" guiding activity, according to a decades-old theory? * the "minor" hemisphere is better at delicate, controlled action * if one side suddenly fails, the other can take over * oscillations between the two sides set up a rhythm of activity * the left hemisphere leads a person to take on challenges, the right hemisphere is associated with avoidance * the two sides allow people to balance in an upright position 4. What does "autonomic" mean?
5. PET scans...
* are not quite as good as thermograms at showing detail * show only brain structures, not areas of activity
* are made by rotating an X-ray machine around a patient's head * often use labeled glucose
* have not lived up to early expectations
6. An axonal arborization looks somewhat like...
* a button
* a cake of many layers
* a grape arbor, according to Cajal
* a dendritic tree
* a corn stalk
7. What does a lobotomy involve?
* suction removal of brain tissue
* removal of the frontal lobe
* cutting off the blood supply to the frontal lobe
* injection of transmitters into the frontal lobe
* cutting off communication between the frontal lobe and the rest of the brain 8. What is the corpus callosum?
* a type of nerve cell in the midbrain
* a collection of deep midbrain structures
* a lobe on the brain
* the main fiber bundle connecting the hemispheres
* the so-called homunculus
9. What is an axon?
* a tube of membrane
* the dendritic tree of a neuron
* a so-called Schwann cell
* the genetic control center of a cell
* one lane in a "multi-laned highway"
10. Dopamine, an important transmitter substance...
* originates in the nucleus bayselis of Meynert
* causes depression, when too abundant
* seems involved in sensory control
* is commonly used in insecticides
* produces psychosis in large amounts
11. Some psychologists, echoing Watson, point out that consciousness is subjective and "if you can measure it..." * "then, and only then, will you have a science"
* "that will only be the beginning of a long, uncertain validation process" * "I'll be a monkey's uncle...no offense to Darwin"
* "you just have neural activity, not consciousness"
* "you are in fact studying behavior"
12. What is true of NON-REM sleep, in contrast to REM sleep? * no mental activity
* total relaxation of muscles below the neck
* desynchrony or "noise" on the EEG
* slower and more regular breathing
* irregular pulse
13. What is the hypnagogic state?
* a state closely resembling hypnotism
* a state during which it is particularly easy to talk to someone in their sleep * the state of transition into sleep
* a state of confusion and disorientation
* a state "halfway between sleep and hypnosis"...
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