Part I: Origins of Psychology
In psychology there are several perspectives that are used to describe, predict, and explain human behavior. The three major psychological perspectives are functionalism, structuralism, and behaviorism. Functionalism stressed the importance of how behavior functions to allow people and animals to adapt to their environments. They included research that involved direct observation of living creatures in their natural settings. They also studied how psychology could be applied to places such as education, child rearing, and working environment. A leading theorist of functionalism was William James. His ideas became the basis for functionalism. Structuralism was the belief that en our most complex conscious experiences could be broken down into elemental structures. A leading theorist of structuralism was Edward B. Titchener. Titchener established a 26 room psychology laboratory. He is well known for his procedure called introspection. Behaviorism is the study of behavior is acquired or modified by environmental causes. A leading theorist of Behaviorism
was John B. Watson. Watson wrote his own book on behaviorism which influenced many other people. Part II: Research Methods
There are four different research methods. There is the scientific method, descriptive research method, experimental method, and correlation studies. The scientific method refers to a set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedures that guide researches in creating questions to investigate, generating advice and in drawing conclusions. The descriptive research methods are strategies for observing and describing behavior. In the descriptive research method they use case studies and surveys. Correlation studies show how strongly two factors are related. Lastly, the experimental method is used to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between two variables. Part III: Ethics in Research
Psychologists must respect the dignity and welfare of participants....
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