1. The third step in the research process is designing the study . The third and final task in this process is exploring casual relationships .
2. Read the section An Apparent Success that Ended in Failure (Dudley, 2011, p. 186). What are your initial thoughts? He went about the study in a wrong way; leading to the study being fraudulent and he had no evidence of the study working.
3. What are the criteria for establishing causality—that an intervention causes a desired outcome? The intervention must precede in time the client’s improvement in a goal. An association must be found between the intervention and the client’s improvement in the goal. The cause of the client’s improvements must be due, at least in part, to the worker’s intervention.
4. What the heck is an extraneous variable or influence?
Influences that are not fully controlled in either pre-experimental or quasi-experimental designs.
5. The baseline is a measure taken prior to the implementation of an intervention.
6. What do a comparison group and a control group have in common?
Both groups receive intervention
7. What is internal validity?
Addresses the question of whether the intervention, rather those other factors, is responsible for improvement in the client outcome variable
8. What is external validity?
Addresses the issue of generalizing the results of a group design to other people
9. How is a pre-experimental design different from a quasi-experimental or experimental research design? Pre-experimental design collects data in only one point in time after the intervention is implemented. Quasi-experimental data collects data at the beginning, during, and after the intervention.
10. The evaluation is a measure taken after an