Motivation is the set of forces that causes people to engage in one behavior rather than some alternative behavior. Importance of motivation: managers strive hard to motivate people in the organization to perform at high levels.
Experienced Rewards or Punishment
Search for Ways to Satisfy Needs
Reassessment of Need Deficiency
Choice of Goal-Directed Behaviors
Enrichment of Behavioral Choice (Performance)
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION
The Traditional Approach – it is assumed that employees are economically motivated and work to earn as much money as they can. * Frederick Taylor developed a method of structuring jobs that he called scientific management. The Human Relations Approach –This approach assumes that employees want to feel useful and important, that employees have strong social needs, and that these needs are more important than money in motivating employees. The Human Resource Approach – the human relationists believed that illusions of contribution and participation would enhance motivation; that the contributions themselves are valuable to both individuals and organizations.
Need-Based Perspectives on Motivation
The Hierarchy of Needs Theory – developed by Abraham Maslow 1. Physiological needs – the most basic needs which includes food, sex , water, and air 2. Security needs – scrod thing that offers safety and security such as adequate housing, clothes, and freedom from worry and anxiety. 3. Love and belongingness needs – are primarily social that includes the need for love and affection and the need to be accepted by groups or peers. 4. Self esteem needs – the need for self-image and self-respect and the need to be respected by others. 5. Self-Actualization needs – the top of the hierarchy that involves a person’s realizing his or her full potential and becoming all that he or she can be.
ERG Theory – developed by Clayton Aldelfer
E – existence needs
R – relatedness needs
G – growth needs
Dual Structure Theory – developed by Frederick Herzberg
* it was originally called the “two-factor theory”
Other important needs
The need for achievement – it is most frequently associated with the work of David McClelland. This need arises from an individual’s desire to accomplish a goal or task more effectively than in the past. The need for Affiliation – the need for human companionship where individual tends to want reassurance and approval from others and usually is genuinely concerned about others’ feelings. The need for power – the desire to control one’s environment, including financial, material, informational, and human resources.
Process-Based Perspectives on Motivation
The equity theory of motivation – this type of motivation is based on the simple assumption that people in the organizations want to be treated fairly. The theory defines equity as the belief that we are being treated fairly in relation to others, and inequity as the belief that we are being treated unfairly compared with others.
When a person feels equitably treated, and then she is motivated to maintain her status quo.
When a person is experiencing inequity whether it is real or imagined, she is motivated to reduce it.
Six common methods to reduce inequity:
1. Change the inputs – we may put more or less effort into the job, depending on which way the inequity lies. 2. Change the outcomes – we may change our own outcomes like demand a pay raise or seek additional revenues for growth and development. 3. Change our perceptions and behavior – change the original assessment and decide that we are contributing less but receiving more than we originally believed. 4. Change our perception of the comparison-other’s inputs or outcomes – our perception of other people is based on perceptions and perceptions can be changed. 5. Change comparison – we may change the object of comparison like we may conclude...
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