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Human Behavior

By rominajardie Sep 27, 2014 1639 Words
INTRODUCTION

HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN
ORGANIZATION
By : Dr. Ellen P. Garcia

COURSE DESCRIPTION
The course is designed to create awareness about people
at work in all kinds of organizations. It provides suggestions on how these people may be motivated to work together

more productively. The course likewise features existing
problems in the work environment that have direct bearing
on worker's performance and the various organizational
theories that are concerned with human behavior in an
organization.

COURSE OBJECTIVE
1. Describe and distinguish the fundamental concepts that
form the basis of organizational behaviors as well as the
elements necessary in understanding the dynamics of
organizations;
2. Investigate, examine, and evaluate the basic
approaches to be used leading to a holistic view of
organizational behavior; and
3. Advocate appreciation and respect for human worth and
dignity as fundamental motivational principles in
productive and effective organizational management.

GRADE SYSTEM
Final Course Grade
50% Final Class Standing (includes all aggregate
CS grades for the whole semester)
20% Midterm Exam
30% Final Exam
Class Standing (CS) Components
20% - Quizzes
30% - Long Tests
15% - Class Participation
25% - Presentation of Research Paper
10% - Homework

CLASS MANAGEMENT
EXPECTATIONS

???
------------------------

BRIEF INTRODUCTION
1. Understanding Human Behavior; and
2. Organizational Behavior;

3. O.B. Theoretical Frameworks
4. Benefits Studying OB;
5. Goals of OB;
6. Elements of Organization;
7. A Brief History of OB; and

8. Ethics and Organizational Behavior

WHAT IS HUMAN BEHAVIOR?
• Refers to the physical actions of a person that can be

seen or heard (e.g. smiling or whistling).

With his

thoughts, feelings, emotions and sentiments, the
person exhibits behaviors similar or different when he
is in or out of organization.

• HBO

is

more

appropriately

Organizational Behavior (OB).

referred

to

as

WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR?
• The study of Human behavior in organization, of the

interaction between individuals and the organization,
and of the organizational itself

UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOR?
• Organizational Behavior - is the systematic study and
careful application knowledge about how people – as an
individual and as groups – act within organization. It strives to identify ways in which people can act and perform more
effectively.
• Purpose of the study is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and
social objectives.
• The perspectives in psychology have influenced the
development of organizational behavior.

Organizational Behavior –
Theoretical Frameworks
“Behavior is not the outcome of stimulus alone, but it is
an outcome determined by the stimulus as well as the
contingent environmental consequences of a behavior” .
. . B.F. Skinner
• This means, there are alternative behaviors for the same stimulus and which behavior is exhibited by a person
depends on expected environmental consequences.

Organizational Behavior –
Theoretical Frameworks
COGNITIVE FRAMEWORK

• Cognitive approach emphasizes the positive and freewill
aspects of human behavior and uses concepts such as
expectancy, demand, and intention. Cognition can be
simply defined as the act of knowing an item of
information.
• In cognitive framework, cognitions precede behavior and
constitute input into the person’s thinking, perception,
problem solving, and information processing.

Organizational Behavior –
Theoretical Frameworks
BEHAVIORISTIC FRAMEWORK
• Modern behaviorism, that marks its beginning with B.F.
Skinner, advocates that behavior in response to a stimulus
is contingent on environmental consequences.

• Thus, it is important to note that behaviortistic approach is based on observable behavior and environmental
variables (which are also observable).

Organizational Behavior –
Theoretical Frameworks
SOCIAL COGNITIVE FRAMEWORK
• It means that cognitive variables and environmental
variables are relevant, but the experiences generated by
previous behavior also partly determine what a person
becomes and can do, which, in turn, affects subsequently
behavior. A persons cognition or understanding changes
according to the experience of consequences of past
behavior.

Organizational Behavior –
Theoretical Frameworks
SOCIAL COGNITIVE FRAMEWORK

• Social learning theory takes the position that behavior can best be explained in terms of a continuous reciprocal
interaction
among
cognitive,
behavioral,
and
environmental determinants. The person and the
environmental situation do not function as independent
units but, in conjunction with behavior itself, reciprocally interact to determine behavior.

WHY DO WE NEED TO STUDY O.B.?
• To learn about yourself and how to deal with others;
• When you are part of an organization, you will continue to be a part of various organizations;
• Organizations are increasingly expecting individuals to be able to work in teams, at least some of the time;
• Some

of

you may want to be a

entrepreneurs;

managers

or

GOALS OF O.B.
• EXPLAIN;
• PREDICT; and
• CONTROL BEHAVIOR

GOALS OF O.B.
• In explaining behavior as a GOAL, OB needs to

systematically DESCRIBE how people behave under a
variety of conditions, and understand why people behave
as they do.
• OB must be used to PREDICT behavior so support can

be provided to productive and dedicated employees, and
measures could be instituted to control the disruptive and
less productive ones.

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF
ORGANIZATION
The Nature of People

The Nature of Organization

 Individual Differences

 Social System

 Perception

 Mutual Interest

 A Whole Person

 Ethics

 Motivated Behavior
 Desire for Involvement
Value of the Person

MEANING OF ORGANIZATION
• A conscious coordinated social unit, composed of two or
more people, that functions on a relatively continuous
basis to achieve a common goals or set of goals.
• Organization is a social system compromised of people,
Structure,
technology
and
environment
with
management as the specific resource of maintaining
system integrity and viability through the performance of
its interrelated responsibilities.
• Society today has rapidly change and become more
complex and organization have changed accordingly

KEY FORCES AFFECTING O.B.

ELEMENTS OF O.B.
PEOPLE

= The performance tasks;
• The most important organizational elements. Human nature leads men to organize and cooperate with one another and to
divide productive effort which is the essence of organization

STRUCTURE

= The arrangement of tasks;
• Defines the formal relationship or people in the organization. It describes how the job tasks are formally divided grouped and coordinated

TECHNOLOGY

= The technology used to perform tasks;
• This are basic organizational activity. It consists of buildings, machines, work processes, and assembled resources.
• Refers to the combination of resources, knowledge and
techniques with which people work and affect the task that
they perform.

ENVIRONMENT

= The network used to perform tasks;
• Refers to the institution or forces outside the organization that potentially affect the organization’s performance. It includes suppliers, customers, competitors, government agencies, public pressure groups and the like.

BENEFITS OF STUDYING O.B.
1. The development of people skills;

2. Personal growth;
3. Enhancement

of

organizational

and

individual

effectiveness;
4. Sharpening and refinement of common sense.
***************

“If an organization is expected to survive,
its action must be in consonance with
ethical behavior…”

BRIEF HISTORY OF O.B.


The importance of studying O.B. is rooted in

psychology. . .

1. Frederick W. Taylor
2. Sigmund Freud
3. B.F. Skinner

4. Abraham Maslow

BRIEF HISTORY OF O.B.
1. Frederick W. Taylor
• Was the well known disciple of the scientific
management movement.


Primary Purpose:
To increase the individual
worker’s productivity.

“Taylor regard individuals as equivalents of
machine parts and assigned them
specific repetitive tasks.”

BRIEF HISTORY OF O.B.
2. Sigmund Freud
• A great contributor of psychologist.


He brought the idea that people are motivated by
far more than conscious logical reasoning.

“Freud believed that irrational motives make up the
hidden subconscious mind, which determines the
major part of people’s behavior.”

BRIEF HISTORY OF O.B.
3. Burrhus Frederic Skinner
• American psychologist B.F. Skinner is best known
for developing the theory of behaviorism.
• His theories on how a culture is created and
reinforced have since been adopted by the human
resource profession to aid in understanding and
adapting corporate culture to fit the needs of the
industry.
“Skinner concluded that when people receive a positive
stimulus like money or praise for what they have done,
they will tend to repeat their behavior.
When they are ignored and receive no response to the
action, they will not be inclined to repeat it.”

BRIEF HISTORY OF O.B.


Skinner identified three types of responses or operant
that can follow behavior:
1. NEUTRAL OPERANTS: responses from the environment that
neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior
being repeated.
2. REINFORCERS: Responses from the environment that
increase the probability of a behavior being repeated.
Reinforcers can be either positive or negative.

3. PUNISHERS: Response from the environment that decrease
the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment
weakens behavior.

BRIEF HISTORY OF O.B.
4. Abraham Maslow
• developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 194050s, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation,
management training, and personal development.


Espouses the idea of developing the personality
toward the ultimate achievement of human
potential.
“Maslow’s believes the person must work his way up
the succeeding steps of a hierarchy of needs.” .”

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
(Original five-stage model)

(. . . In the
workplace)

ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
• Philosophers maintain the view that a society that has
a low regard for morals will disintegrate after a long
period of time.
• To avoid chaos and destruction, and to make life in
society possible, adherence to the practices of moral
principles regulating human relations become
necessary.

ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
What is Ethics?
• Ethics refers to the set of moral choices a person
makes based on what he or she ought to do.

1. Organizational Ethics. These are moral
principles that define right or wrong behavior
in organizations.
2. Ethical Behavior. This refers to behavior that
is accepted as morally “good” and “right” as
opposed to “bad” and “wrong”

ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
Ethics Issues:
• There are important ethical issues that confront
organizations:. They consist of the following:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Conflict of interest
Fairness and honesty
Communication
Relationships within the Organization

TO SUMMARIZE. . .
• the importance of understanding organizational
behavior lies in how deeply you are committed to the
long-term success of your business. . .
a. Know your industry's prevailing successful
organizational behavior;
b. Know your company's preferred cultural
attributes;
c. Hire based on the combination of these
aspects;
d. Provide the employees you hire with an
environment that meets their expectations.

END OF PRESENTATION

Cite This Document

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