836 BCEKing Solomon begins his rule
825 BCE 1stTemple completed by King Solomon
796 BCE Israel split into two kingdoms
Northern: Samaria, Israel (Asy. + Jew=Samaritans; Johanide community) Samaritans opposed the building of another temple.
Southern: Judah, Jerusalem
Due to Rehoboam’s reign??
722-21 BCEAssyrians overrun Northern Israel
Northern (Israel) destroyed by Assyrians
10 lost tribes
587/6 BCE Babylonian Captivity
Southern (Judah) destroyed
First Temple destroyed
Judah lasts 134 years before it falls bringing the kingdom of Israel to an end. After this everything became monotheistic, before, some Jews believed in diff. Gods.
550-522 BCE Cyrus the Great & Rise of Persia
Cyrus founded the Persian Empire
Ended the dispersion that initiated form the Babylonian captivity& permitted return of those in exile.
520-515 BCE Temple Rebuilt (2nd Temple)
Persians founded 2nd temple
450 BCE Torah (Pentateuch)
Recognition as Scripture
333-63BCEGreeks overrun Persian Empire
333 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Israel
Great Assembly: sages defined the essence of Judaism for the Jews of Israel &Dispora
320-168 BCEJudaism under Ptolemies& Seleucids
Hellenistic civilization developed under the Ptolemies&Selucids Greek Empire: what’s beautiful to Greeks was Holy, what was holy was beautiful to the Jews
Ptolemy 2nd& Septuagint
Septuagint: translation of Hebrew bible to Greek, means 70 due to the 70 scholars that completed the translation. 245 BCEGreeks Persecuted Jews(Antiochus 4th)
Torah is translated into Greek
175 BCE Antiochus 3rd (Seleucids)
Brought peace to end.
King of Syria, murders many
175-163 BCE Antiochus 4th (Abomination Desolation)
Violates sacred space by sacrificing pig
His actions led to the Jewish revolt
Mattathias (Hasmoneus) took up arms
167-63 BCE Maccabean Period
Onias obliged to yield to his own brother Jason a Hellenizer Jason became high priest after death of Onias
166-165 BCE Judas
3rd son of Mattathias
Bore name Maccabee which means hammer
Leader of rebellion against Seleucids of Antiochus
Defeated Seleucid commanders, Gks out of Jerusalem (purified temple) Made a treaty with the Romans.
5th son of Mattathias
Solicid throne for family
Paid for protection, offered hostages, unwilling ally of Antiochus VII 150-145 BCE Alexander of Balasdesignates Jonathon as high priest of Jews.
143-134 BCE Simon
Last of the sons of Mattathias
Not descendant of line of Zadok from Aaron
Assassinated by son-in-law Ptolemy gov. of Jericho
134-104 BCE John of Hyrcanus
Created army to throw Tolemi out
Forced circumcision of Edomite men & conversion to Judaism
Conquered the Edomeans (Arabs)
Eleazar “that guy”, told John of Hyracanus to five up the priesthood and govern people.
104-103 BCE Aristobulus I
1st Hebrew Hasmonean ruler take on title “king” (high priest & king) Only descendants of Judah (H.o.D) qualified to be kings of Isreal; predecessors=H.P. Oldest son of John of Hyrcanus
Conquers Galilee (Galilee of Gentiles)
Destroys view of Hellenization
103-76 BCE Alexander Janneus
Son of John of Hyrcanus
Hired pagan mercenaries to defend Jews because Jewish forces were weak. Wife (Salome) becomes Queen of Jews
67-63 BCE Hyrcanus II &Aristobolus II
Hyrcanus II eldest priest & king after D.oM.
Shared Salome’s religious views sympa. To Pharisees
Aristobulus II high priest first (66-62)
Aristobulus started civil war w/bro.
Agreed w/father Sadducean stance
Antipater (Idumean) aimed at controlling Judea by putting “weak” Hyrcanus on throne Antipater was the son of Antipas I, and was the father of Herod the Great Antipater involved the Romans, Pompey became arbitrary
Pompey favored Hyrcanusbcz he was weak and found more reliable ally of Roman Empire.
63 BCE Pompey conquered Jerusalem
Made Jewish kingdom client of Rome
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