top-rated free essay

History 17c

By JosephLiao1 May 06, 2013 1707 Words
HIST 17C – Lecture Notes
Lecture #3 – 4/5/13:
Missing:

The Range of Prosperity

The 1920s: Era of Big Businesses
Technological Growth
Separation of Ownership and Management

Spokespeople for Big Businesses
Calvin Collidge
* Was famously rich, also known for being a great spokesperson Bruce Barton and The Man Nobody Knows
* Jesus as a businessman
* The Man Nobody Knows
* “he recognized the basic principle that all good advertising is news” * He understood that every word he uttered had to be used * Business presented itself as the handmaiden of Christianity and justified itself by linking profitability to religion

Cult of Productivity
* A cult of productivity accompanied the new business ethos * Frederick Winslow Taylor
Henry Ford
* Ford symbolized the cult of productivity during the 1920s * “Machinery is the new Messiah”
* On the side of tradition
* Hates immigrants, Catholics, Jews, etc.
* Ford introduced moving assembly line to automobile manufacture * Cuts car prices so that more people can afford to buy it * Raises wages so that workers are able to buy his products as well * Realizes that in order for demand to continue, need to have people who are able to consume products * Superficially, cult of productivity benefited workers

* Their wages were rising, and they could afford to buy cars and the new mass-produced items * In fact, the cult of productivity meant they had to work at maximum capacity * Ford opposed labor unions, and management’s profits were rising at a much faster rate than workers’ Workers Outside Ford

Cult of Consumption
* Increased productivity and rising wages lead to the cult of consumption * 9 of top 20 industries in late 1920s specialized in consumer goods Consumption!
* Consumption of Entertainment
* Particularly movies & films in the 1920s
* Became the favorite entertainment of Americans
* 1930s year after sound was introduced
* Growing popularity of the radio as well
* Model T cost $290 in 1925, about three months’ wages for workers * Cars are able to be bought on credit
* Urged to buy on installment plan, makes the expansion of all this consumption possible * Encouraged rise of suburbs & road building in the 1920’s Advertisers Create Demand
* Advertises lived off of, and created, the cult of consumption * John Watson
* Alfred Sloan of GM introduced planned obsolescence
* Trying to make newer models a social necessity
Themes
Home
* Sanctifies relaxation
* Place where people are having fun
* Leisure
* Usually have a car and a dog
* Harmony = buying new things
* Ex. if you want friends, buy a fridge so that people will come over to look at it Romantic Love

Advertisers believed they wer

The Impact on Human Behavior: Sex

Lecture #5 – 4/10/13:
FDR and the New Deal
* FDR was thinking of freedom through the government
* FDR wins a huge victory in US
* The New Deal –

Hoover

The Election of 1932: Hoover vs. FDR
* FDR wins popular vote
* Creation of the modern democratic party

FDR
* March 1933 took office
* Contracted polio, could never walk again
* Unspoken agreement in the media to never take a picture of FDR in a wheelchair * Public thought that the polio just left him with a limp * Affair with Lucy M?
* Family made a fortune with the opium trade
Impact
* Not only did he have self-confidence and self-assurance, but he was able to relate it to others so that they would feel it as well * Able to communicate all these characteristics at a time of need * Mood of the country seemed to change over night

* Self-assurance
* Experimentalism – least rich president US has had
* Was willing to try anything; if it didn’t work, try something else * Use of media – shaped public media through radio and public press * Fireside chats, press conferences
* Eleanor Roosevelt – FDR’s “eyes and ears”
* Served as the voice of the disempowered
* Visited everyone from sharecroppers’ shacks to South Pacific * Redefined what it meant to be a first lady
* Before no first lady had ever been as visible
Contemporaries
* Every president since FDR has felt as if he were standing in FDR’s shadow Successors: The Long Shadow
* FDR set the agenda for the postwar era, e.g. the debates over: * The extension of Social Security
* US responsibility to defend democracies in the world * The proper scope of Presidential power
* He created the FDR coalition that combined the South, urban working-class ethnics and African Americans * He’s the barometer against which his successors are judged * Jimmy Carter – his presidential term was a failure

* Engineers are not great presidents, like Herbert Hoover * George Bush Senior – mocked him
* Nixon – stated that FDR was the one who started to record the Oval office * Poll: who would you most like to have dinner with?
* Ronald Regan – FDR was his idol
Significance
* Every president wants to be known as another FDR
* If not, you’re a Herbert Hoover
* Left the idea that the government can do good things for people * FDR established a partial safety net for American people, aimed at providing them security: * National Labor Relations Act/Wagner Act – guaranteed to workers the right to bargain collectively * Giving them the right to join unions and organizations of their choosing * Makes sure that management cannot punish them for joining unions * Establishes protection for those that want to strike * Strongly supported by Senator Robert Wagner

* FDR belatedly gets on the bandwagon
* Sponsors it at the last minute; isn’t completely fair to say he’s responsible for it due to the fact that he only supports it last minute (does happen during his term though) * Work relief – new deal that gives everyone work relief * Ex. Public Works Administration, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, etc. * FDR is hugely responsible for bringing this into action * Responsible for building roads, post offices, schools, etc. * These programs together give the US an infrastructure * Federal Government can provide jobs for people in a humane and efficient way * Can make the opposite argument; can point to selective failures of the WPA * Create makeshift jobs that sap the spirit of the American people * Social Security

* FDR signs SS into Law @ 1935
* Benefits paid for in part by employee, who already paid taxes on wages * Millions left out, especially domestic servants and farm laborers because of southern veto * Unemployment insurance and welfare benefits varied dramatically from state to state * No national health insurance

* Should be identified with FDR
* Imperfect:
* FDR’s farm policy subsidized large landowning white farmers, at the expense of farmhands * African American workers are standing by while the white farmers are getting checks Criticisms

* Work release
* Social security
* Farm program
* All flawed: uninvolved until the last moment
* The New Deal did not bring economic recovery, and its range of reforms were inadequate for future and perpetuated poverty and racial injustice * New Deal was hardly perfect
* A lot of protest

Lecture #6 – 4/12/13: The “Second New Deal”; The Collapse of World Order Review – Previous Lecture
* New Deal did not bring the US out of the depression
* However, it did raise morale of the country

Themes
* In the mid-1930’s, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded to growing criticism FINISH * This “second new deal” failed to end the Great Depression, but it cemented FDR’s hold on the elaborate * By the late 1930s the nation faced a fresh set of challenges, as international order unraveled and global war loomed Challenges to New Deal, Mid-1930s

* American Liberty League – from conservatives (Anti-New Deal) * Widespread perception
* From socialists and communists
* During “Popular Front” period (1935-1939), Soviet government urged American communists to cooperate with “anti-fascist” elements, including FDR administration * Joseph Stalin
* In 1934, novelist Upton Sinclair ran for Governor of California on Democratic ticket (but socialist platform) * Was defeated by a Republican
* Creation of political attacks (in media)
* Dr. Francis Townsend’s movement:
* Pensions
* Father Charles Coughlin:
* Used his radio channel to comment on political platforms * Depression caused by bankers, especially those who ran the private reserve bank * Called for dismantling of national bank system

* Formed National Union for Social Justice
* Senator Huey Long of Louisiana:
* Popular among impoverished people in Louisiana
* Oscar K. (“OK”) Allen
* Initially supported FDR
* “Share Our Wealth” Plan – use the tax system to confiscate wealth from the richest Americans and redistribute that wealth to other households in need * Alternative to the New Deal

* Long had presidential ambitions, might run as a 3rd party * FDR: worried that he would take votes away from the democratic party * 1935:
* In Schecter vs. US, supreme court ruled the NRA unconstitutional * NRA = FDR’s creation
* “Second New Deal”:
* Continued to dispense relief and create jobs, but did so on larger scale and in more populist tones * Revenue Act of 1935
* Social Security Act, 1935
* Those initially denied SS benefits:
* Domestic workers
* Farm laborers
* Growing concern on the elderly, impoverished, and the * Works Progress Administration (WPA), 1935 – created jobs by putting people to work on government projects * Federal government started to fund the arts for the first time * Infuse arts with the democratic spirit and make it more accessible to the public * National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act), 1935

* Senator Robert Wagner
* Made unions take a more active stance
* Helped FDR secure labor’s political support
* Fall 1935 – Huey Long assassinated, eliminating political threat to FDR * Threat to FDR’s campaign eliminated
* 1936 – FDR defeated Governor Alf Landon in landslide

Second Term Blues
* FDR’s “Court-Packing” scheme, 1937
* Proposed to add new judges for every old justice over the age of ? * Opposition grew when this was suggested
* Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes
The Recession of 1937-1938
* Scaled back/cut budgets for relief and job creations programs * Unemployment rates started to go down, causing them to take this action Challenges from “Revisionist” Powers
* 1935 – FINISH
* 1937 – Imperial Japan invaded China
* 1938 – Nazi Germany annexed Austria and demanded part of Czechoslovakia Munich Agreement, September 1938
* Britain and France agreed to German annexation of part of Czechoslovakia * Fear that US would be dragged into a war in which we didn’t have that much of a stake in American reactions to growing instability abroad

* Popularity of “Merchants of Death” thesis
* Senator Gerald Nye – held hearing in the senate trying to elicit testimony trying to support this view * Antiwar activism:
* Veterans of Future Wars demonstrate in New York City, 1936 * Tendency to use humor and satire to talk about the growing request to go abroad Benito Mussolini
Charlie Chaplin & Adolf Hitler
* 1940 – spoofed Adolf Hitler
* Underestimated threat posed
*

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • How Historians Study History

    ...Your Full Name Instructor's Name Class Name Date How Do Historians Study History? People might tend to think of a historian, particularly an instructor, as someone who has a fairly straightforward and simple profession. After all, history is already written. Thus, it should simply be a matter of just memorizing a series of facts. Of cou...

    Read More
  • History and Memory

    ...MODULE C – History and Memory The Fiftieth Gate by Mark Baker suggests that a combination of history and memory is essential in making meaning, i.e. in shaping perceptions of the world around us. How does baker represent this combination to create meaning? History can be viewed as a sequential series of indisputable events, whereas memory ...

    Read More
  • Big history

    ...LITTLE BIG HISTORY ASSIGNMENT Assignment summary Write your own little big history (in Dutch or English): Select a subject or object that you really like. Find one connection between your choice and a topic discussed in each class mentioned in the assignment form. Elaborate the three most intriguing connections that you have f...

    Read More
  • Is History Important?

    ...Is History Important? One reason why history is important it that the past has value to our society. Thousands of people throughout history have gone to great lengths to record history through newspapers, diaries, journals, saved letters, family Bibles, and oral traditions. It is believed that Aborigines of Australia actually managed to hang o...

    Read More
  • History and Perspective

    ...The study of history is a crucial component within our society, it allows us to educate ourselves so we are aware of what changes the world has gone through and what people have faced within the past. Not only this, but studying history will hopefully allow us to come closer to why certain events occurred and via the analysis of multiple perspec...

    Read More
  • Micro History

    ...It is the most interesting and innovative approach to history. The pathfinder of the field was the German Historian George G Igger. He developed it as a methodology in 1970’s to counter the traditional methodology of Social sciences. The basic objection of him was that through the traditional methodology it is not possible to know the c...

    Read More
  • History and Memory

    ...Past, present, future History and memory- which one to believe? The people who survived the Holocaust are slowly disappearing. The number of these survivors is decreasing drastically year by year. Does that mean the memory of these brave fighters leave this world with them? Yes? No? This is where the role of history enters the image. Reco...

    Read More
  • History Bias

    ...History: History Book Bias University Writing Instructor: Richard Baker Brandon University Hongbo Sun 101289 July 24, 2011 Abstract This resear...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.