Helmuth von Moltke-Was the chief architect of the operational stratergy during the Austro –Prussian War. Served as Chief of staff of the Army following the Prussian constitutional crisis of the 1860s. Due to his military strategy the Austro-Prussian war lasted three weeks with the Austrian defeat at Königgrätz.
Battle of the Nations- Also known as the Battle of Leipzig. Clash between the French forces including Germans from the confederation of the rhine as well as Polish and Italian troops. The battle took place October 16-19, 1813, and resulted in a crushing defeat of Napoleon and the French forces. The coalition armies of Russia, Austria, and Prussia failed to chase Napoleon and he escaped back to France.
Leo von Caprivi- Was an German General who succeded Bismarck as Chancelor. He sepperated the office of Prussian Minister President and chancellor of the Reich which Bismarck previously held simultaneously. Under Caprivi’s system secretaries of state were given greater freedom and were allowed audiences with the Kaiser. Further Caprivi introduced the “New Course” which changed foreign and domestic policy towards conciliation with social democrats and a pro-british policy away from the Bismark policy. Caprivi was an ex‐military man who, as a result of this, Wilhelm II was quick to trust. He instigated his own ‘New Course’ – which aimed to ‘kill Socialism with kindness’. He wanted to allow some of the Socialists wanted, including re‐introducing Free Trade and extending the social welfare reforms put in place by Bismarck.
Free Corps- were volunteer military units that were introduced along with Universal military service. The free Corps was made up largely of the urban middle class. Murdered Liebknecht and Luxemburg Jan 1919
Dialectical Materialism is a combination of Hegels Dialectic and Marxist Materialism that believes that history is a result of the underlying problems that begins with a material base that is then challenged with the thesis dividing into an anti thesis and a synthesis which wins out and turns into a new thesis that is then challenged until a classless society is reached where everyone contributes without class struggles.
Schlieffen Plan-The plan was designed to be a contingency for a two front war against the French and the Russians. The plan relyed on the Russians precieved inability to mobalize quickly due to inadequate transportation systems. The plan called for a massive attack against France that would result in French defeat within six weeks after declaring war, which would allow for the Germans to move all forces to the eastern front just in time to combat the Russians. The plan was carried out at the beginning of WWI and failed as the Belgiums held the Germans up and France did not fall, and Russia mobilized faster than expected.
Turnvater Jahn- Fredrick Ludwig Jahn founded gymnastic clubs that were the initial embodiment of German nationalism. The clubs supported the movement for constitutional reform. The name Turnvater means father of Gymnastics. Was seen as central to the Book burning that took place at the Wartburg Festivel
Indemnity Bill-Was passed by the Prussian parliament following the defeat of Austria at the Battle of Koniggratz, it indemnified Bismark for his earlier unconstitutional acts such as the rising of the army through illegally collected taxes between 1862 and 1866 retroactivly. Bismark used the bill to create unity. It was presented because parliament had not consented to taxes in 1862 that were collected, Liberals sold out.
Tripple Alliance- The triple alliance consisted of Prussia, Austria-Hungry and Italy. It began as a Dual alliance between Austria and Prussia and was a purely defensive pact, which bismark realized could be it ultimate downfall. In the agreement each member agreed to support one another in the event of an attack by another power.
Treaty of Versailles- was the ending of WWI. The peace treaty included the loss of...
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