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Group Influence

By ealexand May 04, 2014 1065 Words
Chapter 8: Group Influence

Group Influence

What Is a Group?

Two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as “us”
Social Facilitation: How Are We
Affected by the Presence of Others?
The Mere Presence of Others
Social facilitation
Strengthening of dominant responses whether correct or incorrect in the presence of others Boosts performance on easy tasks
Impairs performance on difficult tasks

Social Facilitation: How Are We
Affected by the Presence of Others?
Crowding: The Presence of Many Others
Effect of others’ presence increases with their number Being in a crowd intensifies positive or negative reactions Enhances arousal

Social Facilitation: How Are We
Affected by the Presence of Others?
Why Are We Aroused in the Presence of Others?
Evaluation apprehension
Concern for how others are evaluating us
Driven by distraction
When we wonder how co-actors are doing or how an audience is reacting, we become distracted Mere presence
Can be arousing even when we are not evaluated or distracted
Social Loafing: Do Individuals Exert
Less Effort in a Group?
Social Loafing
Tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
Social Loafing: Do Individuals Exert
Less Effort in a Group?
Many Hands Make Light Work
Effort decreases as group size increases
Free riders
People who benefit from the group but give little in return
Social Loafing: Do Individuals Exert
Less Effort in a Group?
Social Loafing in Everyday Life
People in groups loaf less when the task is
Challenging
Appealing
Rewards are significant
Involving
Team spirit

Deindividuation: When Do People
Lose Their Sense of Self in Groups?
Deindividuation
Loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad
Deindividuation: When Do People
Lose Their Sense of Self in Groups?
Doing Together What We Would Not Do Alone
Group size
Larger the group the more its members lose self-awareness and become willing to commit atrocities People’s attention is focused on the situation, not on themselves “Everyone’s doing it” attitude

They contribute their behavior to the situation rather than to their own choices
Deindividuation: When Do People
Lose Their Sense of Self in Groups?
Doing Together What We Would Not Do Alone
Anonymity
Being anonymous makes one less self- conscious, more group conscious, and more responsive to cues present in the situation, whether
negative or positive

Children were more likely to transgress by taking extra
Halloween candy when in a group, when anonymous, and, especially, when deindividuated by the combination of group immersion and anonymity.
Deindividuation: When Do People
Lose Their Sense of Self in Groups?
Doing Together What We Would Not Do Alone
Arousing and distracting activities
When we act in an impulsive way as a group, we are not thinking about our values; we are reacting to the immediate situation Impulsive group action absorbs our attention

Deindividuation: When Do People
Lose Their Sense of Self in Groups?
Diminished Self-Awareness
Tend to increase people’s responsiveness to the immediate situation, be it negative or positive
Group Polarization: Do Groups
Intensify Our Opinions?
Group Polarization
Group-produced enhancement of members’ preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members’ average tendency, not a split within the groupGroup Polarization: Do Groups
Intensify Our Opinions?
“Risky Shift” Phenomenon
Occurs not only when a group decides by consensus; after a brief discussion, individuals, too, will alter their decisions Juries
Business committees
Military organizations
Teen drivers

Group Polarization: Do Groups
Intensify Our Opinions?
Do Groups Intensify Opinions?
Group polarization experiments
Moscovici and Zavalloni (1969)
Mititoshi Isozaki (1984)
Markus Brauer, et al. (2001)

Group Polarization: Do Groups
Intensify Our Opinions?
Do Groups Intensify Opinions?
Group polarization in everyday life
Schools
Accentuation effect
Communities
Self-segregation
Internet
Terrorists organizations

Group Polarization: Do Groups
Intensify Our Opinions?
Explaining Polarization
Informational influence
Arguments
Active participation

Group Polarization: Do Groups
Intensify Our Opinions?
Explaining Polarization
Normative influence
Social comparison
Evaluating one’s opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others Pluralistic ignorance
A false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions?
Mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action Caused by

Cohesive group
Isolation of the group from dissenting viewpoints
Directive leader

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions?
Symptoms of Groupthink
Following lead group members to overestimate their group’s might and right Illusion of invulnerability
Unquestioned belief in the group’s morality

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions?
Symptoms of Groupthink
Following leads group members to become closed- minded
Rationalization
Stereotyped view of opponent

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions?
Symptoms of Groupthink
Following leads group to feel pressure toward uniformity Conformity pressure
Self-censorship
Illusion of unanimity
Mindguards

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions?
Critiquing Groupthink
Directive leadership is associated with poorer decisions Groups do prefer supporting over challenging information Groups make smart decisions by widely distributed conversation with members who take turns speaking Group acceptance, approval, and social identity, suppress disagreeable thoughts among members Diverse groups produce more creativity

Groups may not always benefit from all that members know
Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions?
Preventing Groupthink
Be impartial
Encourage critical evaluation
Occasionally subdivide the group, then reunite to air differences Welcome critiques from outside experts and associates
Call a second-chance meeting

Groupthink: Do Groups Hinder or
Assist Good Decisions?
Group Problem Solving
Combine group and solitary brainstorming
Have group members interact by writing
Incorporate electronic brainstorming

The Influence of the Minority: How
Do Individuals Influence the Group?
Consistency
Minority slowness effect
Self-Confidence
Portrayed by consistency and persistence
Defections from the Majority
Minority person who defects from the majority is more persuasive than a consistent minority voice
The Influence of the Minority: How
Do Individuals Influence the Group?
Is Leadership Minority Influence?
Leadership
Process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group Formal and informal group leaders exert disproportionate influence
The Influence of the Minority: How
Do Individuals Influence the Group?
Is Leadership Minority Influence?
Task leadership
Organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
Social leadership
Builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Transformational leadership
Enabled by a leader’s vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence

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