geography urban environments

Topics: Waste, Ganges, Shanty town Pages: 10 (2131 words) Published: April 19, 2014
Urban environments - Geography

URBANISATION:
a process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns and cities, and there is a reduction of people living in rural areas

URBAN REGENERATION:
Slum clearance: the removal of old, port quality housing
Peripheral housing estates: new estates on the edges of towns Regeneration and modernisation: upgrading of existing housing stock

CAUSES:
Rural urban migration:
This is because of push-pull factors: for example people came to get a better job Rural urban migration occurred in the 19th century specifically, as mechanisation was the driving force in farming - which resulted in farmers being unemployed. This acted as a motivation to previous farm workers to visit cities and join a large scale production factory.

Natural increase:
The people that migrate into the towns are generally young - which results in high levels of natural increase in urban population. High proportion of young, fertile adults = high birth rate
Lower death rates due to improvement in medicine

LAND-USE:
CBD:
STANDS FOR CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT
Main shopping, offices and services area
Middle of the city - accessible
zone of regeneration - modernised houses

INNER CITY:
Older area located around the CBD
In the UK, this area is usually built before 1918
Terraced housing

SUBURBS:
The edge of the city area
Many built after 1945
Get newer as they reach the edge of the city
Contain both the:
INNER SUBURBS - which have large semi detached housing (older) OUTER SUBURBS - which have large detached housing (newer)

RURAL-URBAN FRINGE:
Area around the city where urban and rural mixes (town + countryside) Located here would be a council estate and and out-of-town retail centre

ISSUES:

HOUSING:
Population in the UK = increased by 7% since 1971
Number of households = risen 30% since 1971
More people live alone = (7 million of the UK’s population) 1/3 of single-persons households are over 65
poorly maintained housing
lack of basic amenities (50% without baths)
Government target to build 240,000 new houses every year by 2016, so house prices don’t spiral out of control New houses will be 60% built brown-field sites (existing towns and cities/ previously built-on land) and some on greenfield sites (new land) to meet the growing demands and contrasting needs from the population Case study:

Gorballs project (1957-1974) -GLASGOW
People were keen to move into an increased community
500000 people were dispersed to new towns where the estates lacked amenities A mixture of housing styles including public and private developments on brownfield site - great in comparison to previous tenement blocks GOOD However this wasn't entirely successful as many were relocated to suburban social housing estates or in new tower blocks on the outskirts BAD Also, cost-sitting building techniques were used - rushed construction BAD Existing communities broken up BAD

THE INNER CITY:
High crime rate and high unemployment
older, poorer quality housing
ageing population
declining industry
CITY CHALLENGE (holistic approach to regeneration initive in the 1990’s) Case study:
Govan initiative (1987-1994)
Problems:
factory closure
decay and decline of housing stock
environmental damage by M8 motorway
Solutions:
small scale developments created
new businesses
environmental improvements
education and training for resident workforce
Successes:
rebirth of local ship yards provided jobs for local workers GOOD ‘bottom up’ approach served the needs of the community GOOD

Gear project (1976-1987)
Problems:
the project was a response to the mistakes of slum clearance and peripheral estates Policy:
modernisation rather than demolition with newly built housing (2000 private homes) combining with existing housing Evaluation:
refurbishing tenement block (1200 of them) GOOD
attracted 300 factories and private investors GOOD
However, most jobs are taken by...
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