DNA – basic features, base composition
RNA basic features, base composition, what are all the different types of RNA? Nucleotide - what makes up one? What is it’s general structure? Mendel- basic concept of heredity, punett squares, genotype vs. phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, what is an allele, dominant allele recessive allele Two general classes of genetics and what makes up each one
Relationship of a gene to locus to allele to chromosome
What organisms do we do research on? Why? Eukaryotes? Prokaryotes? Basically all definitions in bold print
Timeline of the search of genetic material- all of the scientists involved, their experiments, the conclusion of their experiments Composition and structure of purines and pyrimidines (sugar, bases, phosphate groups, role of phosphodiester bonds, bonds between bases) Experiments and scientists responsible for the discovery of the structure of DNA (Chargraff, Franlin, Wilkins, Watson Crick) Features of the DNA double helix
Compacting DNA in chromosomes- role of topoisomerases, looping,supercoiling Role of histones and non-histones, chromatin, euchromatin, heterochromatin, what is a nucleosome? histone core? C value & C value paradox
Centromere and telomere, what are they- how are they similar? How are they different? What is their importance? CEN sequences, importance of A-T rich regions, what is their purpose? All bold faced definitions
3 models for DNA replication, the experiment that proved semiconservative was right, the scientists who performed it and how they did it? All elements and machinery necessary for replication: origin, replicator, template strands, helicase, DNA gyrase, DNA primase, primosome, RNA primers, SSB proteins, Okazaki fragments, leading and lagging strands, DNA ligase, continuous, discontinuous, replication fork, replisome. Pol I, pol III, free dNTPs How do we replicate the ends of chromosomes? Why is this important? What is telomerase? Why is it unique? Cell cycle in relation to DNA replication and histone transcription and translation ALL BOLD WORDS
Replication in eukaryotes vs prokaryotes
Beadle and Tatum and their hypothesis, experimental design, conclusion Prototroph vs auxotroph, nutritional mutant, “rescue experiment” Using mutants to predict the biochemical pathway
Enzyme deficiencies in humans (PKU, albinism, Lesh-Nyhan syndrome, Tay- Sachs) what genes are mutated? What is the phenotype? How do genes control protein structure?
SCA, SCT, Beet and Neel and Pauling’s role in determining the cause of SCA and SCT, the role amino acids have in determining the effects of a mutation Genetic counseling
Pedigree analysis, carrier detection, amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling All bold faced words and definitions
What is mRNA, tRNA, snRNA, and rRNA and what is their role?
What is transcription? transcription in eukaryotes vs. prokaryotes Function of a promoter and a pribnow box, what is the sigma factor? What is RNaApolymerase? How does RNA elongation and termination occur in prokaryotes? Rho-dependant, rho-independent, what is the function of the hairpin structure? Transcription in eukaryotes: RNA pol 1-3, pre-mRNA, TATA box, promoter proximal elements, activators and enhancers,GTFs 5’UTR 3’UTR
Synthesizing pre-mRNA in eukarotes vs mRNA in prokaryotes, differences and similarities How do we produce mature mRNa in eukaryotes? Introns, exons, capping, polyA tail, polA polymerase Splicing- how are introns removed? 2 main maehods 1- spliceosomes, snRNPs, branch-point sequence or 2- self-splicing lariat molecule RNA editing
rRNA, understanding the ribosome structure as seperates and as a whole main difference in transcribing rRNA vs mRNA, what are spacers? RNA polIII and its role in transcribing tRNA, role of tRNA and its form, anticodon and codon Bold faced words and definitions
Understanding a protein, polypeptide and amino acids, types of AA, levels of protein structure What is the genetic code? How is it read?
Frameshift mutation-what does it cause
Open reading frame?
Characteristics of the genetic code
Why is the code degenerate? What is the wobble hypothesis?
How do you charge a tRNA?
What is involved in activating translation in prokaryotes vs eukaryotes? Shine-Dalgarno sequence, fmet, met
P site, E site, A site, peptide bond, peptidyl transferase
Bold words and definitions