Forensic notes

Topics: Sex, Pelvis, Male Pages: 7 (1006 words) Published: December 3, 2013
Skeletal Analysis:
Initial treatment and examination of skeleton; sexing the skeleton and stature. Initial treatment:
Reconstruction: pieces go back to original location. Example: Facial skujl reconstruction Determining commingling and MNI: Minimum number of individuals Determining MNI:
1. Duplication: no 2 bones of same type and side are present. 2. Consistency in size: ensuring that bones within individuals are same proportions

Definitions
Anthropometry: Measuring both living and dead
Osteometry: Measurement of skeleton and its parts
Anatomical landmarks of skull: Precise points in the skeleton that are used for measurements. Example: Femur

Measuring Tools
Sliding Calipers: Simple measurements referencing points that are close together and when the contours of skull don interfere. Spreading Caliper: Measurements dealing with cranial vault points on skull that can’t be taken in a straight line. Osteometric Board: Measures long/large bones.

Tape Measure: Measure circumferences of long bone shafts.

Fordisc 3.0
Computer program utilizing discriminant functions based on modern populations 24 cranial, 10 mandibular, 44 postcranial measurements.
Sex, ancestry and stature
Program developed at University of Tennessee
Only tarsal that is measured is the calcaneus

Forensic Report
Always a quick summary.
Narrative is the analyzation of remains found (Agency)
Biological profile contains 5 categories
1. Age
2. Sex
3. Stature
4. Anomalies
5. Individualizing traits (fragment bones, tumors, metopic suture, dental markings) Trauma
1. Ante mortem: (before death)
2. Perimortem: (At or time around death)
3. Post mortem: (After death)
Ante mortem has evidence of healing bones
Perimortem has no signs of healing bones/flesh because of the environment

Time since death (sometimes) anthropologist doesn’t apply. Very rare if the anthropologist gives time of death Identification (if asked) depending on what is provided
Anthropologist can’t ID without ME approval yet can provide notes and report (Pathologist or MW would need to provide additional information) Murder case needs positive ID’s (DNA)
Regardless how it’s done the forensic report must be thorough

Weight and Body Build
Nothing is usually mentioned about weight
Body build, muscle attachments gets larger

Determining sex of skeleton
Assessment based on:
Reference sample
# of bones available
Entire skeleton: 90-100%
Pelvis: 90-95%
Skull: 80-90%
Long Bones: 80%
Range overlaps between males and females. Want to utilize as many traits possible for determing sex. Females = Gracile
Males = Robust
We only determine biological sex and not gender!

Hermaphrodite
Caster Semenya
18 yr old from rural S. Africa village
Big muscular, flat chested, deep voice…
Rapid improvements of times set in Long run
2009 world Championships
Gold Medal in 800 meter run
Questions that people asked: If she was on drugs (steroids), etc. International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)
Leaked the information determining that Semenya was a hermaphrodite and that male organs weren’t visible. They allowed her to keep medal and prize money
If somebody would be hermaphrodite skeletal features would be more robust (male type skeletal)

Sexing Sub adults
Sex differences do not show until after puberty
Difficult to sex kids
Sexing starts with teenagers
Ultimately to determine sex we would use DNA

Postcranial
Sexual Dimorphism
One sex larger than the other
Overall size and robusticity
Robust, Gracile
Example: Femoral and humorous to determine sex

Single Measurment
Vertical diameter of the femoral head to determine sex
Female 47mm
Only used when fragmentary skeletal remains

Pelvic inlet shape
Females-wide and flaring iliac bones
Pelvic inlet (brim)
Females-wider and oval from side to side
Male-Narrow heart shape

Subpubic Angle/Sacrum
Subpubic angle
Males-less than 90 degrees (v shape)
Females-greater than 90 degrees (u...
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