Final Exam Review Sheet
The Council of the 500
The Definition of the Word Tyrant
The Peace of Callias
The Battle of Marathon
Boards of Ten
1. The great Persian invasion under Xerxes was a crucial factor in cementing the ties of Greek ethnicity and a sense of separation from other peoples. It is no accident that the great playwright Aeschylus asked that his tombstone be engraved only with a mention of participation in the war and was content to omit his dramatic victories. What were the causes of this invasion? What was the Persian strategy? How did the Greeks respond to the threat? What were the crucial battles in the war and finally why did the Persians fail?
2. The most important political development between the end of the Persian threat in 479 and the last third of the Fifth Century was the development of an Athenian Empire from the Delian League. What were the events connected with the origins of this empire? How did it develop over time? Is there a point at which we can speak of an empire as opposed to an alliance? Finally what sort of political situation did it produce in Greece?
3. Describe the Athenian constitution as it stood at about 440 B. C. What were the most important institutions and what were their powers? Why was the lot used more than election for most offices? Is this a democratic measure, If so, why? Finally what factors made possible the use of direct democracy at Athens?
4. The development of Athenian democracy can be said to have begun towards the end of the 6th Century with the reforms of Cleisthenes. First, outline the political situation that led Cleisthenes to undertake these reforms. Second, what was the content of these