Exam #2 Study Guide

Topics: Nonverbal communication, Communication, Denotation Pages: 12 (3095 words) Published: November 15, 2013
Exam #2 COM 112
Chpt. 5 Notes

144 Language: structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning. Bound by context, governed by rules, and sometimes unclear, expresses affection.

145 Language is arbitrary (mostly) – words mean whatever we choose them to mean. Language is symbolic – each word represents a particular object or idea, but it does not constitute the object or idea itself.

Abusing language:
164] 1. Defamation – land that harms a person’s reputation or negative image. Harmful words. [Comes in 2 forms libel (defamatory statements made in print of some other fixed medium, photograph, motion picture) and slander (defamatory statements made aloud within earshot of others.] 165] 2. Profanity – form of language considered vulgar, rude, or obscene in the context in which it is used. Offensive language.

163] 3. Slang – informal and unconventional words that are often understood only by others in a particular group.

162 Euphemisms: Soft Talk – a vague, mild expression that symbolizes something more blunt of harsh.

152 Names – suggest info about person’s demographic characteristics
We represent ourselves to others through our names
A name is an important component of sense of self
Gain info about others through names

153 Persuasion: process of moving people to think or act in a certain way.
rhetorical proof: ways to support a persuasive argument.

150 Linguistic determinism: suggests that the structure of language determines how we think. Linguistic relativity: suggests that because language determines our perceptions of reality, people who speak different languages will see the world differently.

150 Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis – idea that language influences the ways that members of a culture see and think about the world.

156 Credibility – the extent to which others find someone’s words and actions trustworthy. Others perceive us to be competent and trustworthy.

168 Shared opinion error - occurs when you incorrectly assume that your listeners share your opinions.

165 Hate Speech: Profanity with a hurtful purpose, specific form of profanity meant to degrade, intimidate, or dehumanize people on the basis of their gender, national origin, sexual orientation, religion, race, disability status, or political or moral views. Calling people derogatory names, intimidating them, and advocating violence against groups of individuals.

163 Jargon – a form of informal speech closely related to slang. A technical vocabulary of a certain occupation or profession. Purpose is to allow members of that occupation or profession to communicate with one another precisely and efficiently.

162 Humor – enhances our interpersonal interactions in many ways. Can bring us closer to others and make social interaction more pleasant and enjoyable. Violation of expectations.

169 factual claims – even if the statement isn’t true, it is still factual claim because it expresses something that could be verified by evidence.

169 opinions – expresses an evaluation about what “should be”, more judgments.

147 Pragmatic Rules – deal with implications or interpretations of statements. “nice to meet you” depending on tone of voice, lead to conclusion.

146 Semantic rules – govern the meanings of individual words, meanings may be arbitrary but they are agreed upon by speakers of a language.

146 Phonological rules – deal with correct pronunciation of words, vary from language to language.

146 Syntactic rules – govern the ordering of words within phrases.

156 Equivocation – form of language that sometimes influences a speaker’s credibility or disguises the speaker’s true intentions through strategic ambiguity. Often used in a dilemma situation

148 Loaded language – terms that carry strongly positive or strongly negative connotations. Reflects the observation that denotations and connotations represent different layers of meaning.

147 Denotative meaning – a word’s...
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