Western Civilization I, Exam I
Terms that may appear on the exam:
1. Akhenation- created a religious upheaval in Egypt by introducing the worship of Aten. Pg 30
2. Book of the Dead- negative confession. Pg 25
3. Cuneiform- wedge-shaped system of writing; impressions on clay tablets, which were then baked or dried in the sun. Pg 16
4. Epic of Gilgamesh- records the exploits of a legendary king of Uruk. Pg 17
5. Erbil- can be dated back to at least 6000 BC and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
6. Eridu- is an ancient Sumerian city in what is now Tell Abu Shahrain, Dhi Qar Governorate, Iraq. Eridu was long considered the earliest city in southern Mesopotamia, and is still today argued to be the oldest city in the world. Pg 10
7. Hebrew Diaspora- when Jews became scattered throughout the ancient world after their exile to Babylon, did they become merchants. Pg. 44
8. Law Code of Hammurabi- emphasizes the principle of “an eye for an eye” and punishments that vary according to social status. Pg 13
9. Ma’at- the ancient Egypt of Truth. Pg 26
10. Marduk- a late generation God from Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi, started to slowly rise to the position of the head of the Babylonian pantheon. Pg 15
11. Menes/Narmer- an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the early dynastic period, credited by classical tradition with having united Upper and Lower Egypt. Pg 21
12. Monotheism- the belief that there is only one God for all people. Pg 40
13. Nile River- is a unique river and it is the longest river in the world. Pg 18
14. Old Testament- the chief source of information about Israel’s conceptions. Pg 41
15. Phoenician Alphabet- a new system of writing. Pg 65
16. Pyramids- tombs for the mummified bodies of pharaohs. Pg 26
17. Resurrection- is the concept of a living being coming back to life after death. It is a religious concept, where it is used in two distinct respects: a belief in the resurrection of individual souls that is current and ongoing.
18. Scribe- a person who writes books or documents by hand as a profession and helps keep track of records.
19. Tigris & Euphrates- the rivers together formed natural borders for an area which harbored several grand ancient civilizations.
20. Uruk- an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates River. Pg 9-10
21. Ziggurat- the chief god or goddess of the city & often built atop a massive step tower. Pg 9
Questions to help you study:
1. How did the geography of Mesopotamia and Egypt shape their cultures? Mesopotamia-. The early inhabitants of this area first had to tame the two rivers, Tigris and Euphrates, to reach the agricultural potential. Also in Mesopotamia metal workers could produce bronze with the copper and tin they had. This technology would later spread to Egypt, Europe, and Asia. The Mesopotamians had no stone, and no timber so these materials had to be imported from Syria and Asia. As more and more people flooded into the southern part of the fertile crescent the major city of Sumer formed and here are the first signs of clear cut civilization. Wheel traffic, boats, advanced tools, and bureaucracy were seen here. Cuneiform writing was also developed here and it was written on the soft clays from the two rivers. One of the rivers that brought so much life to this region also brought its downfall. Egypt- Ancient Egypt was sustained by a river as well. The Nile river valley was named Kemet “the black land” because of the rich black soil that was deposited yearly by the Nile floodwaters. The Egyptians were skilled in geometry which was important in measuring out the dimensions of property after the floods had destroyed old property lines. Religion was a major role in Egyptian society, so people made...
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