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Evolution study guide

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Topics: Evolution
Study guide for Evolution

Chapter 16

What is Evolution?
Process of change over time.
What did Darwin observe on his travels?
He observed different species and their characteristics and habititats.
How did come to form his theory?
Because of his travels and earlier works of Malthus and Lamarck.
What does Darwin mean by “Evolution by Natural Selection”?
Natural selection is the process by which organisms with variations most suited to their local environment survive and leave more offspring. Natural selection “drives” evolution.
What is fitness, and adaptation?
Fitness is how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment. Adaption is any heritable characteristic that increases an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce in its environment.
Do we have “evidence” of Evolution? What are they?
Patterns in the distribution of living and fossil species tell us how modern organisms evolved from their ancestors. Many recently discovered fossils form series that trace the evolution of modern species from extinct ancestors. At the molecular level, the universal genetic code and homologous molecules provide evidence of common descent.
Are there strengths and weaknesses with the theory?
Strengths are that there are newly discovered fossils that show some traits from common ancestors. Weakness is the time it has to take for this whole evolution process to take place, people didn’t think the world was that old.
What do homologous structures and similarities suggest about the process of evolutionary change?
Evolutionary theory explains the existence of homologous structures adapted to different purposes as the result of descent with modification from a common ancestor. Similarities and differences among homologous structures help determine how recently species shared a common ancestor. For example the front limbs of reptiles and birds are more similar to each other than either is to the front limb of an mammal. This similarity indicates that the common ancestor of reptiles and birds lived more recently than the common ancestor of birds, reptiles and mammals. So birds are closer related to crocodiles than bats.
What are the major differences between creationism and Darwinism? Remember the movie!
Darwinism concerns itself as a science, that is explained by scientific methodology. Biological evolution concerns changes in living things during the history of life on earth. It explains that living things share common ancestors and over time evolutionary change gives rise to new species. On the other hand, the ideas of creation science is derived from the conviction of most Abrahemic religions that God created the universe-including humans and other living things-all at once in the relatively recent past.

Chapter 17

What is genetic variation? Why is it important from an evolutionary point of view?
What is a gene pool?
How do we get genetic variation? Sources?
How does Natural Selection affect single-gene and polygenic traits?
What is genetic drift? How does it affect evolution?
How do we get new species? Be able to give examples!
If we isolate a species, what would eventually happen to the species?
What different types of isolation can happen in Nature? And how do they each effect the species?

Do the assessment questions at the back of each chapter to prepare for the test on Tuesday the 9th of April! You will be assessed on Criterion C. See back for outline.

Good Luck!

Criterion C: Knowledge and understanding of science
Maximum: 6
Achievement level
Level descriptor
0
The student does not reach a standard described by any of the descriptors below.
1–2
The student recalls some scientific ideas, concepts and/or processes.
The student applies scientific understanding to solve simple problems.
3–4
The student describes scientific ideas, concepts and/or processes.
The student applies scientific understanding to solve complex problems in familiar situations.
The student analyses scientific information by identifying parts, relationships or causes.
5–6
The student uses scientific ideas, concepts and/or processes correctly to construct scientific explanations.
The student applies scientific understanding to solve complex problems including those in unfamiliar situations.
The student analyses and evaluates scientific information and makes judgments supported by scientific understanding.
Analyse: to identify parts and relationships and to interpret information to reach a conclusion.
Complex problems: refers to problems that are set in a familiar or unfamiliar context and require analysis. These problems can often be broken down into sub-problems or stages, each of which requires the selection and application of the appropriate principle, rule, equation or method.
Evaluate: to assess the implications and limitations; to make judgments about the value of ideas, works, solutions and methods in relation to selected criteria.
Simple problems: refers to straightforward problems that are clearly stated and set in a familiar context, and require the student to apply the appropriate principle, rule, equation or method.
Unfamiliar situation: refers to a problem or situation in which the context or the application is modified so that it is considered unfamiliar for the student.

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