esl 21a

Topics: Arctic Ocean, Quotation, North Pole Pages: 5 (1415 words) Published: September 29, 2014
Paraphrasing Lecture Notes
What is paraphrasing?
Paraphrasing is using your own words to express what someone else has already written. To clarify, let’s say that you have read an article which has information you would like to include in an essay. You can NOT simple copy word for word exactly as it is written in the original text. However, you can rewrite the text in your own words. Be sure to follow these three rules to help you when paraphrasing. 1. The “rule of 3”. Generally, you can copy three consecutive words as they originally appear in a text. However, once you reach the fourth word, you MUST paraphrase (rewrite the passage in your own words).

2. Change the words but NOT the meaning. In other words, make sure that what you have written expresses the exact same meaning as seen in the original text.

3. Cite the information using MLA. In other words, tell the reader where the information came from. Here are a few examples of paraphrasing
Original Passage:
The Lomonosov Ridge is 1,100 miles long, about the distance from San Francisco to Denver, and rises about 10,000 feet from the floor of the Arctic Ocean. Geologists think the ridge might have broken away from a continent about 55 million years ago and remained near the North Pole while other landmasses drifted away. Moran and other scientists chose the ridge for potential drilling during a 1991 cruise during which they crossed the North Pole. The site was intriguing for the fact that no one had ever drilled the seafloor for a core there because of sea ice that drifts around like pieces of a massive jigsaw puzzle. Accurate Paraphrase:

Climbing 10,000 feet above the floor of the Arctic Ocean, the Lomonosov Ridge stretches 1,100 miles in length: roughly the distance between San Francisco and Denver. Geologists believe that it may be what remains of a continent that broke apart and moved away from the North Pole around 55 million years ago. Moran and her colleagues, knowing that the shifting sea ice in the Arctic Ocean had prevented others from having ever drilled there, selected the Lomonosov Ridge location as a future core-sampling site on a 1991 excursion across the North Pole. As you can see, when comparing the original passage with this paraphrase, the writer's word choices and sentence structure are not the same, yet the information has remained the same. Inaccurate Paraphrase:

In 1991, Moran and her colleagues, convinced that the core samples retrieved would reveal startling new geologic information, chose to drill the Arctic Ocean seafloor near the 1,100 mile long Lomonosov Ridge, a left over relic of continents breaking up and moving away from the North Pole some 55 million years ago. In this example, the wording and sentence structure are significantly different; however, the meaning of the original passage has been considerably distorted. Inferences are drawn that are simply not accurate enough for a paraphrase. Inappropriate Paraphrase:

The 1,100 miles long Lomonosov Ridge, about the same distance from San Francisco to Denver, rises about 10,000 feet from the floor of the Arctic Ocean. Scientists think the ridge may have broken away from another continent about 55 million years ago, remaining near the North Pole while the rest of the landmass drifted away. Moran and other scientists chose this ridge for drilling on a cruise in 1991 in which they crossed the North Pole. They were intrigued by the fact that no one had ever drilled the seafloor there for a core because of sea ice drifting around like massive jigsaw puzzle pieces. In this example, the wording and sentence structured corresponds too closely to the original for it to be fairly called a paraphrase.

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...

it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.

it helps you control the temptation to quote too much.

the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the...
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