Epidemiology

Topics: Epidemiology, Demography, Medicine Pages: 11 (2914 words) Published: September 27, 2013
Introduction to Epidemiology 101
Health 330
Study Guide for Exam 1
Chapters 1, 2, 3
09-21-2013

Chapter 1: History, Philosophy, and Uses of Epidemiology
1. Salmonellosis is an infection caused by Salmonella bacteria, which can produce gastrointestinal symptoms of cramping, diarrhea, and fever that begin 12 to 72 hours after onset. a. 2008 Case: tomatoes and peppers grown in Mexico

2. Epidemic: the occurrence in a community of a disease clearly in excess of normal expectancy a. Community, chronic, and other conditions
b. Example: polio, measles, obesity, diabetes, and heart disease 3. Pandemic: an epidemic that spans a wide geographical area a. Worldwide, very wide area, crossing international boundaries, affect large number of people b. Example: influenza

4. Epidemiology: concerned with the distribution and determinants of health and disease, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations a. Applied to the control of health problems in populations, even violet episodes b. Key characteristics of epidemiology

b.i. Population
b.i.1. All the inhabitants of a given country or area considered together b.i.2. Population medicine
b.i.3. Examples: salmonella, violence in schools, and lung cancer b.ii. Distribution
b.ii.1. Occurrence of disease and other health outcomes varies in population, with some subgroups of the populations more frequently affected than others b.iii. Determinants
b.iii.1. A factor or event that is capable of bringing about a change in the health status of a population b.iii.2. Examples: biological agents (bacteria, virus), chemical agents (pesticides), stress, and lifestyles b.iii.3. Exposure: contact with a disease causing factor, the amount of the factor that impinges upon a group or individuals b.iii.3.a. Examples: contaminated food, air pollution, radiation b.iv. Outcome

b.iv.1. All possible results to causal factor from an exposure b.iv.1.a. Examples: infectious disease, disabling conditions, injuries, chronic diseases, personal behavior, and lifestyle, or health conditions b.iv.2. Morbidity: illness due to a specific disease or health condition b.iv.3. Mortality: cause of death

b.v. Quantification
b.v.1. Statistical measurement to describe the occurrence of health outcomes and exposures b.v.2. Descriptive epidemiology: concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population c. Control of Health Problems

c.i. A natural history of disease, course of disease from beginning to end c.ii. Pre-pathogenesis: before disease interacts with host
c.iii. Pathogenesis: after interaction with host
c.iv. Prevention
c.iv.1. Primary: targets pre-pathogenesis, before disease can occur c.iv.1.a. Methods: education programs, immunizations, creation of a health environment c.iv.2. Secondary: early phases of pathogenesis, activities that limit the progression of disease c.iv.2.a. Methods: programs for cancer screening and early detection of other chronic diseases c.iv.3. Tertiary: late phases of pathogenesis

c.iv.3.a. Methods: programs to restore optimal functioning, physical therapy, and fitness programs 5. Biomedical science: relies on scientific methodology and high level technical skills a. Interdisciplinary Science: information from many fields, such as mathematics, biostatistics, history, sociology, demography, geography, behavioral science, and law b. Scientific method: theory, hypothesis, data

b.i. Cross sectional: designed to estimate the prevalence of disease or exposure and a type of descriptive epidemiology b.ii. Ecologic comparison study: correlation between exposure rate and disease rate among different groups or populations over the same time period b.iii. Case control: compares individuals who have disease with individuals who do not have the disease in order to examine differences in exposure or risk factors for the disease b.iv. Cohort: individuals who share an exposure in common and...
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