EOSC 118

Topics: Mineral, Corundum, Gemstone Pages: 18 (5955 words) Published: October 21, 2014

Module A
Lesson 2: Famous Gemstones and Jewellery
Diamond Encrustations
British Crown Jewels
Koh-I-Noor diamond: (“Mountain of Light”)
One of world’s largest diamonds
The Cullinan Diamond: largest diamond rough ever found
Hope Diamond
Deep blue colouration
Lack of internal flaws
Shows VS1 clarity
First sold to King Louis XIV
Top ten diamonds by size
Diamonds >10 carats = exquisite
Diamonds >50 carats = possession of museum/wealth people
Diamond >199 carats = not sold, history
Epic diamond = smaller diamonds of intense color with history Top ten largest diamond
Golden Jubilee
Cullinan I, II
Spirit of Grisogonon Centenary
Jubilee
7th DeBeers Diamond
The Red Cross
Millennium star
Emeralds of Envy
Most impressive emeralds originate exclusively from Colombia List of famous Colombian emeralds:
Mogul Diamond* (cut)
Rectangular shaped emerald
Inscribed with Islamic text, backside: carved poppy flowers Hooker Emeralds: (cut Colombian emerald)
Patricia Emerald: (largest uncut fine Colombian diamond)
Regal Rubies
Rubies of the fines quality originate from Burma
Color of the finest stones is often referred to as Pigeon’s Blood Red Pigeon’s Blood Red – red to purple-red color with medium-dark tone that is enhanced by a red fluorescence Lists of famous Rubies

“Mogok Ruby”
one of the finest cut rubies
weights 15.97 carats
Two famous star rubies:
“Burmese DeLong Star Ruby” – 100.32 carats
“Rosser Reeves Ruby” – 138.7 carats
“Black Prince’s Ruby” – most famous ruby
not a ruby at all, but instead a red spinel
set in the Imperial State Crown just above Cullinan II diamond Lesson 3: Significant People and Groups
Top producing countries for gold, PGMs, and diamonds
Prominent use for gold, PGMs and diamonds
Conventional diamond pipeline, from mine to market
Significant historical events of late 20th cent to their impact on De Beers Diamond monopoly Role that organizations such as GIA have on the jewellery industy Diamond & Gold = largest roles in industry

Platinum group = second most important non-gem material
Gold
South Africa:
produces 11% of world’s newly mined gold
has long been world’s largest producer of gold
China
recently yrs, have taken over and produced slightly more (12%) Australia, North/South America
Canada – world 8th largest producer (4% world’s output) most originate from hard rock mines in Ontario, Quebec, and B.C Jewellery production accounts for 83% of the global consumption of the gold Remainder 17% primarily by electronics, currencies, investments Barrick Gold of Canada: largest non-Chinese producer of gold Platinum Group Metals (PGMs)

Platinum is commonly found with five other similar metals in nature: palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh), ruthenium (Ru), Iridium (Ir), osmium (Os) rarer than gold
Rh most expensive, Pd is least expensive, Pt in between the two Higher melting pont than gold
Exhibit very good durability & strength
Use in jewellery accounts for 30% of global consumption of platinum and palladium Rest 70% going into autocatalysts (15% into electronics)
Prices of PGM dictated by global supply balanced by the demand in the autocatalyst and jewellery market Two main producers of PGMs
South Africa (79%)
Bushveld Complex: primary geological structure that hosts mines that are producing the majority of PGMs Russia (12%)
**Anglo Platinum Group Ltd. Largest producer of platinum with several operations in South Africa and Canada Diamonds ***
Lesson 4: Current trends in the media
Why and how gems and precious metals are valued in society
How marketing influences the value of gems and jewllery
Recent developments in prevalent consumer trends and the industry’s response Lesson 5: Key Geoscience concepts
The world “Science”
Earth system science:
Understanding how Earth created/creates beautiful and inspiring gems and metals Diamond: formed deep within the Earth in a region called...
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