Study Guide for the Lecture Quiz
Note: There may be questions on the quiz on other topics, but the list below represents my best attempt to list the high points of our class material for you. THIS BRIEF OUTLINE DOES NOT REPLACE YOUR TEXTBOOK. YOU NEED TO STUDY IT THOROUGHLY TO DO WELL ON THE QUIZ!
What sciences are included in Earth Science?
Encompasses all sciences that seek to understand the Earth and Earth’s neighbors in space. Including: geology, oceanography, meteorology & climatology, and astronomy.
The scientific definition of the term “environment.”
Is the context in which we and other organisms live.
Everything that surrounds and influences an organism.
Renewable and nonrenewable resources – examples of each.
Renewable – can be replenished. Ex: plants and energy from water & wind. Non-renewable – cannot be replenished. Ex: metals and fossil fuels.
How human population growth is affecting the planet.
Rate of mineral and energy usage has climbed.
Types of environmental problems.
Natural Hazards: earthquakes, hurricanes, and landslides.
Human induced or human accentuated:
Climate change due to human greenhouse – gas emissions
Resource depletion due to overpopulation.
What are the basic goals of science?
The overall goal of science is to discover the underlying patterns in nature and then to use this knowledge to make predictions about what should or should not be expected, given certain facts or circumstances (5).
What are: hypothesis, theory, paradigm?
Hypothesis – tentative or untested explanation that is tested to determine if it is valid. Theory – tested and confirmed hypothesis. A well-tested and widely accepted view that explains certain observable facts. Paradigm – theory that explains a large number of interrelated aspects of the natural world. A theory that is held with a very high degree of confidence and is comprehensive in scope.
What is the “Scientific Method?”
Scientists gather facts through observation and then formulate hypothesis and ultimately theories.
Scales of space and time in Earth Science (do not memorize the geologic time scale, yet – just know what it is). Space scale – a set of ascending levels, from smallest to largest. Time scale – a set of ascending levels, from shortest to longest. Geological Space Scale
Geological Time Scale
The origin and age of the Earth, and the Nebular Hypothesis. Sun, Earth, and other planets formed about the same time.
Nebular hypothesis – our solar system evolved from enormous rotating cloud called solar nebular.
The formation of the Earth’s layered structure.
Originally cold body of rock, ice, and gases was heated by impacts and internal radioactivity.
The Earth’s “spheres”: hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere. Hydrosphere – oceans, the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere. Also includes, freshwater found in streams, lakes, glaciers, and underground water. Atmosphere – thin fragile blanket of air.
Biosphere – includes all living organisms.
Geosphere – rocky portions of Earth, including solid and molten rock.
What is a system? What are open and closed systems?
Any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole. Ex: Earth is a system. Open system – both energy and matter flow into and out of system. Ex: river system. Closed system – are self-contained. Ex: automobile cooling system.
What are negative and positive feedback mechanisms?
Negative feedback mechanism – resists change and stabilizes system. One reaction triggers its opposite. Positive feedback mechanism – enhances the system. One action triggers more of the same.
Earth’s sources of energy.
Sun – drives external processes (water and ocean circulation). Earth’s interior – drives internal processes (volcanoes, earthquakes caused by radioactive decay of elements.
What is a mineral?...
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