Earth Science

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MINERALS

5 CHARACTERISTICS OF A MINERAL: 1)Naturally Occuring; 2) Be a colid; 3) Have an orderly crystalline structure; 4) have a definite chemical composition; 5) generally be inorganic

Which are not classified as Minierals & Why: Gold, Water, Synthetic Diamonds, Ice & Wood: Gold-YES – naturally occurring; Synthetic Diamond: NO – Manmade; Water: NO – liquid state, only a solid material can be considered a mineral – in it’s naturally occurring ice state it is a solid and therefore a mineral; Wood: NO – organic, living material.

How are rocks different from minerals: rock is lithified aggregate of a mineral. Rocks may contain multiple minerals as well as organic matter whereas minerals are a singular substance.

ATOM: Electrons, Protons & Neutrons: Pro & neu heavier particles in the nucleus. Elec are tiny lightweight particles that form a cloud around the nucleus -
Proton: 1 atomic mass unit, +1 electrical charge; Neutron: 1 atomic mass unit, electrically neutral;
Electron: Tiny fraction of 1 atomic mass unit, -1 electrical charge

Valence Bonds: Interact with other atoms to form chemical bonds

Atom & Ions: an Ion is an atom in which the total number of electrons is NOT equal to the total number of proton which would give it a net positive or negative charge. An ion is produced when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons and becomes either positively charged (if electrons are lost), or negatively charged (if electrons are gained)\

Ionic Bond: the attraction of oppositely charged ions to one another producing an electrically neutral compound / Covalent Bond: a chemical bond formed by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms

Isotope: have varying numbers of neutrons in the nucleus and therefore different atomic weights / Unstable Carbon Isotope: CARBON-14

IF: Neutral Atom: #electrons 35; #mass 80; CALCULATE: #protons: A neutral atom has = #protons & electrons; The atomic number is = to the number of protons in

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