E Environmental Chemistry

Better Essays
E1 Primary Air Pollution
Primary pollutants are pollutants that are added directly to the air.
Primary pollutant
Natural Source
Man-made source
Effect on health
Methods of reduction
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Atmospheric oxidation of methane (plant degradation)
CH4 + ½ O2  CO + 2 H2
Natural forest fires
Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels
C8H18 + 8 ½ O2  8 CO + 9 H2O
Forest fires
Prevents hemoglobin from carrying oxygen by forming carboxyhemoglobin
Headaches
Shortness of breath
Unconsciousness
Death
Lean-burn engines decrease fuel-air ratio to 18
CO(g) + O(g)  2 CO2
Catalytic converter which achieve high rate of reaction by using a platinum catalyst, heterogeneous reactions and very high temperatures
Thermal exhaust reactor takes advantage of heat of reactors
2 CO + O2  2 CO2
Oxides of nitrogen
Electrical storm
Decomposition of organic matter containing nitrogen
Combustion of fossil fuels at high temperatures
Combustion of nitrogen and oxygen at high temperature inside an internal combustion engine
Lung irritant
Irritates eyes
HNO3 aerosols
Lean-burn engine
Recirculation of exhaust gases at lower temperatures
Catalytic converter
Sulfur oxides (Sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide)
Oxidation of H2S
Reduction of sulfates
Volcanoes
Sea spray
Biological decay
Coal-burning
Roasting of metal sulfides
S + O2  SO2

Lung irritant
Forms sulfuric acid aerosols
Problems caused by acid deposition
Removal of sulfur from fuel using K2CO3
(H2S + CO32-  HS + HCO3-)
Use coal with low-sulfur content
Use alternative energy sources
Fluidized bed combustion
Alkaline scrubbing
Particulates
Volcanic eruptions
Large forest fires
Forest fires
Incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (which creates soot), particularly coal and diesel
Incinerators
Emissions from industrial plants
Irritant of lungs (particles penetrate lungs and can block air passages)
Cause lung diseases like bronchitis or cancer
Some are poisonous
Sedimentation chambers
Wet scrubbers: water spray washes particulates away from

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