1. Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, and Petition. 2. Right to keep, bear arms.
3. No lodging troops in private homes.
4. No unlawful search or seizures.
5. Criminal proceedings – Guarantees Due Process of Law. No Double Jeopardy. No self-crimination. 6. Criminal Proceedings – Right to speedy and fair trial. Must inform defendant of charges. Right to attorney and fair impartial jury. 7. Trial by Jury in Civil cases where value exceeds $20.
8. No excessive bail or fines. No cruel or unusual punishment. 9. Not all rights are listed. (All individual rights are not listed in the Constitution). 10. Powers reserved to the states. (Limits the Federal Government). 11. Suits against states.
12. Requires separate Electoral ballots for President and Vice President. 13. Abolished slavery.
14. Grants citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States”. Forbade any state to deny any person “life, liberty or property”, without due process of law”. Cannot “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of its laws.” 15. Cannot deny right to vote based on race, color, and servitude. 16. Congress can tax income directly.
17. Popular election of Senators.
18. Prohibition of alcohol.
Sugar Act: There was a strong enforcement of the duties on refined sugar and molasses imported into the colonies from non-British Caribbean sources to reduce smuggling. Grant monopoly on the American market to the West Indies sugar planters. Currency Act: Parliament assumed control of the colonial currency system. It banned the issue of any new bills and the re-issue of existing currency. Parliament preferred “hard currency”. Sterling. Stamp Act: Revenue stamps were attached to printed matter and legal documents, newspaper, and insurance papers, etc. “No taxation without representation.” Public protests increased. Quartering Act
Molasses Act: A British law that imposed a tax on sugar, molasses, and rum imported from non-British colonies into North American colonies. It was intended to maintain the monopoly of the American sugar market by the West Indies sugarcane growers. It was the least successful of the Navigation Acts, since it was avoided by smuggling. Declaratory Act: Stated that the British Parliament had the same power to tax in the colonies as it did in Great Britain. Parliament emphasized its authority to make binding laws on the American colonies. Townshend Act: A series of four acts passed by the British Parliament. It was an effort to declare their right of colonial authority through suspension of a representative assembly and through strict collection of revenue duties. They posed an immediate threat to traditions of colonial self-government. Tea Act: Legislative plan by the British to make English tea marketable in America. The North administration hope to reaffirm Parliament’s right to levy direct revenue taxes on the colonies. Lord North repealed four of the five Townshend duties but kept the tax on tea = Boston Tea Party. Intolerable Acts: “Coercive Acts”. Four corrective actions passed by the British government in retaliation for acts of colonial defiance. They became the justification for assembling the First Continental Congress in 1774. Boston Port Bill – closed Boston Port until tea from Boston Tea Party was paid. Massachusetts Government Act – increased the power of the Massachusetts royal governor. Administration of Justice – allowed officers to be tried in England. Coercive Act – Quartering Act. Quebec Act: Mandated that an appointed governor and a council would lead the Canadian government. The British also acknowledged that the Catholic Church would enjoy a privileged position. Help diffuse any religious problems since the majority of the French people were Catholic and Canada was a British colony. Naturalization Act: Required that the Aliens be residents for 14 years instead of 5 years before they became...
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