DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Topics: Bile, Bile acid, Digestive system Pages: 5 (423 words) Published: June 2, 2014
 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Digestion is a process of breaking down complex food molecules into simple ones, suitable for absorption and their subsequent utilization in our body

PURPOSE

to convert complex food molecules into simpler ones, suitable for absorption and utilization production of energy, necessary for survival & vital chemical activity growth & development of the body

repairing function
reproductive function
lactation

FUNCTION
to keep the mouth moist, required for talking & swallowing of food intake of food
digestion
secretion of digestive juices from various glands
absorption of water, vitamins, minerals
absorption of digestive end products of carbohydrates, proteins, fats water balance
acid-base balance
electrolyte balance
maintenance of blood sugar level
production of RBC
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
mouth
teeth
tongue
liver
oropharynx

Gall-bladder
oesophagus
pancreas
stomach
Digestive glands
small intestine

large intestine,
anal canal

SALIVARY GLANDS
1. Parotid
2. Submaxillary
3. Sublingual

3 pairs of salivary glands
FUNCTION
to keep the mouth moist, required for talking & swallowing of food prepare the food substance into bolus, suitable for digestion helps in the taste of food substance
swallowing
digestion of carbohydrates to maltose & isomaltose
prevents microbial growth in the mouth
lubricating function
excretion of heavy metals, toxic substances, drugs
buffering capacity
electrolyte balance
water balance

STOMACH
1. cardiac-mucus
2. pyloric- mucin , gastrin
3. body & fundus-
chief cells- pepsinogen, rennin
parietal cells- HCL, intrinsic factor
enterrochromatin cells- serotonin

FUNCTIONS
digestive function
helps in the digestion of proteins & some fat
excretory function
bacteriolytic function-gastric HCl kills bacteria
mucus protects the GI mucosa from HCl
water balance
electrolyte balance
lubricating function
intrinsic factor- helps in the absorption of vitamin B12 - helps in RBC production PANCREAS
1. Acinar cells-98% : pancreatic juice
2. Islets of Langerhans-2%
α-cells(largest,25%)=glucagon
β-cells(smallest,60%)=insulin
δ- cells (intermediate,10%)=somatostatin

FUNCTIONS
digestion of carbohydrates , lipids, proteins
digestion of nucleoproteins
bicarbonate neutralizes gastric HCl
water balance
electrolyte balance
acid-base balance
INTESTINAL JUICE
SECRETED FROM BRUNNER'S & CRYPTS OF LIEBURRKHUN CELLS
FUNCTIONS
final digestion of carbohydrates, lipids & fats
mucus protects GI lining from HCl
intrinsic factor- helps in the absorption of vitamin B12 - helps in RBC production water balance
electrolyte balance
acid-base balance

LIVER & GALL-BLADDER- BILE SECRETION

bile salts- salts present in human bile
sodium glycocholate
sodium taurocholate
potassium glycocholate
potassium taurocholate
bile acids- the acidic substances in bile
glycocholic acid
taurocholic acid
cholic acid
deoxycholic acid
lethocholic acid
enolic acid

saliva
gastric juice
pancreatic juice
intestinal juice
bile
total amount
1200-1500ml
1200-1500ml
1500ml
1-2L
500-1000ml
consistency
cloudy

viscous
reaction
slightly acidic
strongly
acidic
alkaline
faintly-acid, faintly
alkaline
neutral-alkaline
specific gravity
1.002-12
1.002-4
1.010-30
1.010
1.010-1
1.026-40
pH
6.02-7.05
0.9-1.5
8.0-8.3
6.3-9.0
7.7
6.8-7.6

BILE
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