Stakeholders And Sustainability
Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid, APPM
Department of Social & Development Science
Faculty of Human Ecology
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Introduction to Agenda 21
v The Earth Summit held in Rio De Janerio, Brazil was attended by 178 country leaders (including Malaysia) on June 1992. The Earth Summit provides world's action plan towards sustainable development. This action plan was known as Agenda 21 - an agenda to achieve sustainable development in the 21st century.
Agenda 21 is designed as a bridge
v between environment and development
v between the public and private sectors
v between governments and civil society
v between global and national goals
v between current and future generations
v between knowledge and action
v between developed and developing countries.
Agenda 21 Consists of 40 Chapters in 4 Sections as following :- v Social and Economic Dimension
v Maintaining and managing resources
v Strengthen the roles of dominant groups (the women, children, NGO,LAs) v Methods of Accomplishment
Under Section 3 of Agenda 21, dominant group such as the women, children, NGO, youth, employee, business and industrial sectors including aborigines hold major role implementing Agenda 21 towards sustainable development at local level. Thus, it was known as Local Agenda 21 - Local Action Plan towards sustainable development in 21st century.
LA 21 PRINCIPLES
v Holistic perpective in thinking and action among sectors
v Active participation from all partnership to create togetherness and love feeling
v Community thinking and action in lifecycle
v World perspective in local issues “think globally act locally”
v Long term perspective for local issues
Characteristics of LA 21
The following are some characteristics of an LA21 program:
v It addresses economic, social and ecological needs together. v It includes a consensus on a vision for a sustainable future. v It includes a participatory process with local residents. v It establishes a Stakeholders Group, Forum or equivalent multi sectoral community group to oversee the process. v It contains an Action Plan with concrete long-term targets. v It has a monitoring and reporting framework.
v It has indicators to monitor progress.
v It has tangible activities and programs to actualize its Action Plans.
Participation is defined as:
A process through which stakeholders influence and share control over development initiatives and the decisions and resources which affect them
A Stakeholder can be defined as:
Any individual, community, group or organisation with an interest in the outcome of a programme/project, either as a result of being affected by it positively or negatively, or by being able to influence the activity in a positive (+) or negative (x) way
Stakeholders: Yet another term!
Those who have an interest in a particular decision, either as individuals or representatives of a group. This includes people who influence a decision, or can influence it, as well as those affected by it. NGOs, Civil Society, or Major Groups?
“Major Groups” is a term that was introduced in Agenda 21, agreed by governments at the Rio Earth Summit. It describes nine sectors of society identified as having a significant role in sustainable development: v women
v children and youth
v indigenous people
v Local authorities
v Workers and trade unions
v business and industry
v the scientific and technical community
Deciding on a Strategy for Consultation
v It is important to develop a consultation strategy not just a series of one-off events:
v A strategy helps planners obtain more of the information they need v It helps educate stakeholders...
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