Dental Roentgenology

Topics: X-ray, Ionizing radiation, Gamma ray Pages: 67 (11529 words) Published: July 10, 2013
RADIATION HISTORY

Basic Terminology
Radiation
- A form of energy carried by waves or stream of particles (photons)

X-radiation
- A high-energy radiation produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a metal target in an x-ray tube

High-energy Radiation
- A form of radiation that is able to pass through substances (e.g. the human body)

X-ray
- A beam of energy that has the power to penetrate substances and record image shadows on photographic film

Radiology
- The study of radiation as used in medicine; a branch of medical science that deals with the use of x-rays, radioactive substances and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Radiograph
- A picture on film produced by the passage of x-rays through an object or body

Dental radiograph
- A photographic image produced on film by the passage of x-rays through teeth and related structures

Radiography
- The art and science of making radiographs by the exposure of film to x-rays

Dental Radiography
- The making of radiographs of the teeth and adjacent structures by the exposure of film to x-rays

Dental Radiographer
- Any person who positions, exposes, and processes dental x-ray film

Diagnosis
- The process of identifying lesions, disease, abnormalities

Uses of Dental Radiographs
1. To detect lesions, diseases and conditions of the
teeth and supporting structures that can not be
detected clinically
2. To confirm or clarify suspected disease
3. To localize lesions or foreign objects
4. To provide information during dental procedures
5. To evaluate growth and development
6. To illustrate changes secondary to caries,
periodontal disease and trauma
7. To document the condition of a patient at
a specific time

Radiation
A) Naturally-Occuring
• UV Rays
• Terrestrial Radiation – from soil
• Cosmic Radiation – airplanes; one of the strongest types of radiation
B) Artificially-Produced
• Artificial Light
• Gamma Rays
• Microwaves, TV, radio – low-energy radiation

Experimentation Prior to X-ray Discovery
1. Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Geissler
- German glass blower
- Built the first vacuum tube in 1838 (Geissler Tube)

2. Johann Wilhelm Hittorf
- German physicist
- Used the vacuum tube to study fluorescence.
- In 1870, he observed that the discharges emitted from the negative electrode of the tube traveled in straight lines, produced heat and resulted in greenish fluorescence (Cathode Rays)

3. William Crookes
- English Chemist; redesigned the vacuum tube
- Discovered that the cathode rays were streams of charged particles

4. Philip Eduard Anton von Lenard
- Discovered that cathode rays could penetrate a thin window of aluminum foil built into the walls of the glass tubes and cause fluorescent screens to glow

Discovery of Radiation
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
• Discovered the x-ray on November 8, 1895
• “Father of x-rays”
• Used the Hittorf-Crookes vacuum tube
• While working in a darkened laboratory with a vacuum tube, Roentgen noticed a faint green glow coming from a nearby table
• He concluded that unknown rays caused the
fluorescence- x-rays
• He experimented with the rays and observed that
images could be permanently recorded
• Made the first radiograph of the human body; he placed his wife’s hand on the photographic plate and exposed it for 15 minutes
• Skiagraphs/skiograms

Pioneers in Dental X-radiation
1. Otto Walkoff
- German Dentist
- Made the first dental radiograph in 1896

2. W.J. Morton
- New York Physician
- Made the first dental radiograph in the US using a skull

3. Carl Edmund Kells
- New Orleans Dentist
- Exposed the first dental radiograph in the
US using a live patient

4. William Herbert...
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