Colonization notes

Topics: Native Americans in the United States, James I of England, Charles I of England Pages: 6 (1611 words) Published: September 20, 2013

No one knows exactly when people came to the Americas- maybe 40,000 years ago- walk from Asia to Alaska- world’s oceans low/ land bridge. Beringia Separate waves of migrants different times- settled different regions from Artic Circle to South America distinct language and customs 1400’s 8 to 10 million people lived in the U. S. (map pg. 16) West Africans pg. 29

Morocco= north Congo River in the south of the forest kingdoms Benin Guinea= great kingdoms well organized
Societies= farming trade art work
Beyond the coastal forests in the grasslands south of the Sahara lay Songhai- empire in the 1400s one of the largest in the world Banking system- universities- well run gov. major religion Islam While Europeans prized land Africans prized labor had abundancy of land= average life span short Developed [not first] the institution of slavery- [prisoners of war, orphans, criminals work land] Spain- conquistadores conquerors the land

Expected- mixtures of cultures- thought Spanish elements superior- looking for 1) gold 2) conversions to Christianity 3) colonies 1521- Hernan Cortes- defeated Aztecs in Mexico- great empire 20 million people 1532- Franciso Pizarro Incas in Peru

Spain established colonies- land areas settled by immigrants who continue to be subjects of the parent country Culture in Native America- forced to accept Spanish culture
Encomienda System- Native Americans required to farm, ranch, or mine for the profit of an individual Spaniard- that Spaniard saw to their well being 1531- Ponce de Léon - Florida
1565- Menendez de Aviles fort- protect settlements pg. 42
South/West forts= presidios manned by soldiers survival of outposts= by Franciscans Mission- convert Native Americans with help of soldiers they forced Native Americans to settle in villages or congregations to farm and worship Resistance- some revolts Native Americans and English against Spanish Spanish ahead exploration and colonization other Europeans tried to catch up different patterns of conquest and settlement

England based their pattern of conquest on their experience in Ireland- 1500-1600s England made Ireland its 1st overseas colony- English settlers poured onto the island put down resistance stern measures Reformation England Protestant/ Irish Catholics

English remade completely any culture they conquered did not practice the forced blending of Europeans and Native American societies like Spanish English- conquest all or nothing
England began to enter America between 1560 and 1570s led by Sir Francis Drake= acted as privateers (pirates) had authority of English gov. - raided Spanish fleets By 1580s- England had a permanent position in the Americas- wanted a base for raids and further exploration 1587- 31 yr. old Sir Walter Raleigh financed the establishment of a base in Roanoke Island - island outer banks of North Carolina Settlers vanished completely- no one knows why

Relief expedition in 1590 found only empty building- doorpost was carved with the only clue the word Croatoan= Croatans nearby Native American group= maybe adopted 41 settlers family- names continue in use among the Croatan people 20 yrs. Later in 1607 settled Jamestown -honor King James I- the land itself called Virginia after Elizabeth- never married bore title Virgin Queen 104- Adventurers started colony where shareholders in the Virginia Company =which was a joint stock company -shareholders contributed money to the costs of an enterprise and expected a share of the profit- most investors remained in England - young men earn share by simply paying their way to Virginia first men settled - then women

exploited Native American labor and wealth
Indians attacked- English cannon forced them to retreat
8000 Indians lived in the Chesapeake Region
Pamunkey people - most powerful Powhatan leader
English went and paid tribute to him tried keep peace
Starvation and disease hit colony
By 1625- 6000 Europeans to Virginia 16 years later only 1300 remained there...
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