a) USSR still lives in antagonistic "capitalist encirclement" with which in the long run there can be no permanent peaceful coexistence. As stated by Stalin in 1927 to a delegation of American workers: "In course of further development of international revolution there will emerge two centers of world significance: a socialist center, drawing to itself the countries which tend toward socialism, and a capitalist center, drawing to itself the countries that incline toward capitalism. Battle between these two centers for command of world economy will decide fate of capitalism and of communism in entire world." (b) Capitalist world is beset with internal conflicts, inherent in nature of capitalist society. These conflicts are insoluble by means of peaceful compromise. Greatest of them is that between England and US. (c) Internal conflicts of capitalism inevitably generate wars. Wars thus generated may be of two kinds: intra-capitalist wars between two capitalist states, and wars of intervention against socialist world. Smart capitalists, vainly seeking escape from inner conflicts of capitalism, incline toward latter. (d) Intervention against USSR, while it would be disastrous to those who undertook it, would cause renewed delay in progress of Soviet socialism and must therefore be forestalled at all costs. (e) Conflicts between capitalist states, though likewise fraught with danger for USSR, nevertheless hold out great possibilities for advancement of socialist cause, particularly if USSR remains militarily powerful, ideologically monolithic and faithful to its present brilliant leadership.
Iron Curtain Speech:
Churchill calls out Stalin as the bad guy. Provocative speech. In this speech, Churchill gave the very descriptive phrase that surprised the United States and Britain, "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent." Before this speech, the U.S. and Britain had been concerned with their own post-war economies and had remained extremely grateful for the Soviet Union's proactive role in ending World War II. It was Churchill's speech, which he titled "The Sinews of Peace," that changed the way the democratic West viewed the Communist East. Though many people believe that Churchill coined the phrase "the iron curtain" during this speech, the term had actually been used for decades (including in several earlier letters from Churchill to Truman). Churchill's use of the phrase gave it wider circulation and made the phrase popularly recognized as the division of Europe into East and West.
Stalin's Reply to Churchill, March 14, 1946
- Stalin compares Churchill to Hitler. Considered an act of war by Stalin. What struck me the most about Stalin's "Reply to Churchill" was the tone of Stalin's speech. In this speech, Stalin is responding to Churchill's "Iron Curtain Speech", in which Churchill discusses the threat of the "Soviet sphere", the presence of communism within this sphere and the threat of the Soviet influence on German communism. In this speech, Churchill essentially discusses the Soviet desire to demonstrate "the indefinite expansion of their power and doctrines", to which his solution is to exclude the Soviets in order to maintain "unity in Europe", and control Soviet power under the United Nations. While Churchill's speech talks of the necessary actions in order to maintain peace in Europe, Stalin's response seems cold and condescending, almost provoking other European nations to initiate warfare against Russia. Stalin equates Churchill's words with those of Hitler in regards to "racial theory", and, saying that Churchill only calls to the English speaking nations of the world. In making such an accusation, Stalin divides the teams between the English speaking nations and the non-English speaking nations, only he is able to place this blame on Churchill. In his response, Stalin is very abrasive and seems intent on making Churchill look like the bad guy, like the instigator, and, in comparing Churchill with Hitler, would have done a convincing job (for those people who supported Stalin). Stalin's speech was given less than a year after the terror of World War II, a war that Hitler is to blame entirely for. Consequently, Stalin's comparison of Churchill with Hitler was potent and was probably made to instill fear in many people of the possible threat of Churchill. Although Churchill had discussed his desire for peace and his repulsion "that a new war is inevitable" in his Iron Curtain speech, Stalin managed to twist he words of Churchill around to make it look as if Churchill had plans or the foundation to initiate another war. I guess that I wonder whether or not this was a convincing argument to the followers of Stalin, or whether this speech made any other nations worried about English-speaking nations initiating warfare?
- The US will support nations a risk of falling prey to communism. The US supplies Greece and Turkey with financial assistance to fend off a communist threat. Specific example of containment. PRESIDENT HARRY S. TRUMAN'S ADDRESS BEFORE A JOINT SESSION OF CONGRESS, MARCH 12, 1947 Mr. President, Mr. Speaker, Members of the Congress of the United States: The gravity of the situation which confronts the world today necessitates my appearance before a joint session of the Congress. The foreign policy and the national security of this country are involved. One aspect of the present situation, which I wish to present to you at this time for your consideration and decision, concerns Greece and Turkey. The United States has received from the Greek Government an urgent appeal for financial and economic assistance. Preliminary reports from the American Economic Mission now in Greece and reports from the American Ambassador in Greece corroborate the statement of the Greek Government that assistance is imperative if Greece is to survive as a free nation. I do not believe that the American people and the Congress wish to turn a deaf ear to the appeal of the Greek Government. Greece is not a rich country. Lack of sufficient natural resources has always forced the Greek people to work hard to make both ends meet. Since 1940, this industrious and peace loving country has suffered invasion, four years of cruel enemy occupation, and bitter internal strife. When forces of liberation entered Greece they found that the retreating Germans had destroyed virtually all the railways, roads, port facilities, communications, and merchant marine. More than a thousand villages had been burned. Eighty-five per cent of the children were tubercular. Livestock, poultry, and draft animals had almost disappeared. Inflation had wiped out practically all savings. As a result of these tragic conditions, a militant minority, exploiting human want and misery, was able to create political chaos which, until now, has made economic recovery impossible. Greece is today without funds to finance the importation of those goods which are essential to bare subsistence. Under these circumstances the people of Greece cannot make progress in solving their problems of reconstruction. Greece is in desperate need of financial and economic assistance to enable it to resume purchases of food, clothing, fuel and seeds. These are indispensable for the subsistence of its people and are obtainable only from abroad. Greece must have help to import the goods necessary to restore internal order and security, so essential for economic and political recovery.