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Classroom Management

By evefortuna Apr 20, 2012 876 Words
Effective Classroom Management Technique

Approaches to Classroom Management

1. Assertive Approach
2. Business-Academic Approach
3. Behavioral Modification Approach
4. Group Managerial Approach
5. Group Guidance Approach
6. Acceptance Approach
7. Success Approach

1. Assertive Approach - Expects teachers to specify rules of behavior and consequences clearly * Suggestions for teachers applying assertive discipline a. Clearly identify expectations

b. Take positions (Say, “I like that” or “I don’t like that) c. Use a firm tone voice
d. Use eye contact, gestures, and touches to supplement verbal messages e. Say no without guilt feelings
f. Give and receive compliments genuinely
g. Place demands on students and enforce them
h. Set limits on students and enforce them
i. Indicate consequences of behavior and why specific action is necessary j. Be calm and consistent, avoid emotion threats
k. Follow through regularly
l. Persist; enforce minimum rules; don’t give up
m. Establish positive expectations for student behavior, eliminate negative expectations about students n. Gain confidence and skills in working with chronic behavior problems in the classroom

2. Business-Academic Approach
* Developed by Evertson and Emmer
* Emphasizes the organization and management of students as they engage in academic work 3 Major Categories
I. Clear communication of assignments and work requirement 1. Instruction for assignments
2. Standard for form, neatness and due dates
3. Procedures for absent students
II. Monitoring student work
1. Monitoring group work
2. Monitoring individual work
3. Monitoring completion of work
4. Maintaining records of student work
III. Feedback to students

3. Behavioral Modification Approach
* Teachers using this approach spend little time on the personal history of students or on searching for the reasons for a particular problem * Teachers strive to increase the occurrence of appropriate behavior through a system of rewards and reduce the inappropriate behavior through punishments Methods of Effective Classroom Managers

1. Roadying the classroom
2. Planning rules and procedures
3. Teaching rules and procedures
4. Consequences
5. Beginning of school activities
6. Strategies of potential problems
7. Monitoring
8. Stopping inappropriate behavior
9. Organizing instruction
10. Students accountability
11. Instructional clarity

4. Group Managerial Approach
* Based on Jacob Kounin’s research
* Emphasizes the importance of responding immediately to group student behavior that might be inappropriate or undesirable Categories of Pupil and Teacher Behavior
* Major Categories of Pupil Behavior
1. Work Involvement
2. Deviancy – ranges from no misbehavior to serious misbehavior * Major Categories of Teacher Behavior
3. Desist technique (has 2 abilities)
* With-it-ness – ability to react on target
* Overlapping – teacher’s ability to handle more than one matter at a time 4. Movement management
* Is the organization of behavior in transition from task to task within and between lessons. * Smoothness – uninterrupted work periods and short * Jerkness – is a disorderly flow of activities

5. Group Guidance Approach
* Is based on manipulating or changing the surface of behavior of the students on a group basis According to Fritz Redl..
* Disciplinary problems have 3 causes
1. Individual case history – the problem is related to the psychological disturbance of one child 2. Group conditions – the problem reflects unfavorable conditions in the group 3. Mixture of individual and group causes – the problem centers around an individual, but is triggered by something in the group

6. Acceptance Approach
* Is rooted in humanistic psychology and maintains every person has prime need for acceptance * Rudolph Dreikurs is noted for a disciplinary approach based on the need of acceptance

7. Success Approach
* William Glasser
* although teachers should not excuse bad behavior on the part of the student, they need to change whatever negative classroom conditions exist and improve conditions so they lead to student success

Management of Discipline

Student Problem Types Based on Teacher Descriptions
* Failure syndrome
* Perfectionist
* Underachiever
* Low achiever
* Hostile aggressive
* Passive aggressive
* Defiant
* Hyperactive
* Distractive
* Immature
* Rejected by peers
* Withdrawn

Behaviors can be classified into 4 general attributes or dimension * Hyperactivity
* Inattentiveness
* Conduct disorder
* Impulsivity

Some behavior of children rated by parents
Behavior| Hyperactivity| Inattentiveness| Conduct Disorder| Impulsivity| 1. Unable to sit still | | | | |
2. Talks too much | | | | |
3. Reckless, acts carelessly | | | | |
4. Cannot accept correction | | | | |
5. Hums and make odd noises | | | | |

Strategies for Managing Problem Students
* Accept the students as they are
* Be yourself
* Be confident
* Provide structure
* Explain your rules and routines
* Communicate positive expectations
* Rely on motivation
* Be a firm friend
* Keep calm
* Size up the situation
* Anticipate behavior
* Expect, but don’t accept misbehavior

Guidelines for Using Punishment
* Learn what type of punishment school authorities allow
* Don’t threaten the impossible
* Don’t punish when you are at a loss for what else to do or in an emotional state * Don’t assign extra homework as punishment
* Be sure the punishment follows the offense as soon as possible * Be sure the punishment fits the misbehavior
* Be consistent with punishment
* Don’t use double standard when punishing
* Give the student the benefit of doubt
* Don’t hold grudges
* Don’t personalize the situation
* Document all serious incidents

Management of Physical Environment >> Creating an Effective Physical Classroom Environment

Seating Arrangement
* Row StyleCircle StyleCabaret Style

Theatre Style Horseshoe StyleBoardroom Style

Management of Routine

Understanding the Rules

Classroom Order
* Establishing classroom activities
* Rules and Procedures
* Academic work and activities
* Routines
* Enacting processes
* Hidden curriculum Monitoring
* Maintaining group lessons
* Seatwork
* Transitions
* Engaged time
* Cueing
* Maintaining academic work
* Cooperative learning teams
* Subject matter as procedure
* Teacher expectations

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