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Topics: Adenosine triphosphate, Cellular respiration, Mitochondrion Pages: 15 (1830 words) Published: April 23, 2014
Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation
1. The mitochondrion
Lec 8

A. Mitochondrial anatomy
B. Mitochondrial transport systems
2. Electron transport
A. Thermodynamics of electron transport
B. The sequence of electron transport

Lec 9

C. Complex I NADH Coenzyme Q Oxidoreductase
D. Complex II succinate Coenzyme Q Oxidoreductase
E. Complex III Coenzyme Q-Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase
F. Complex IV Cytochrome c oxidase

3. Oxidative Phosphorylation
A. The Chemiosmotic Theory
Lec 10

B. ATP Synthase
C. The P/O ratio
D. Uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation
4. Control of ATP Production
A. Control of oxidative phosphorylation
B. Coordinated control of oxidative metabolism

Lec 11

5. Physiological implications of aerobic metabolism
A. Cytochrome P450
B. Reactive Oxygen Species
C. Antioxidant Mechanisms

Mitochondria and chloroplasts are organelles of
energy conversion that carry their own DNA

Mitochondria – release energy from nutrients
and convert it to ATP
Chloroplasts – capture solar energy and store it
in carbohydrates

Organelles in a cell

Mitochondria
Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles distributed through the cytosol of most eukaryotic cells.
Their main function is the conversion of the potential energy of food molecules into ATP.
Every type of cell has a different amount of mitochondria.
There are more mitochondria in cells that have to perform lots of work, for example - your leg muscle cells, heart muscle cells etc.
Other cells need less energy to do their work and have less mitochondria.

Mitochondrion

Size: 0.5 x 1.0 µm
Copy number per cell: ~2000

Particles: portion of
integral membrane
proteins

The mitochondrion

Cristae are sometimes tubular and are connected to the inner membrane space through small holes that restrict the flow of protons. This restriction causes an increase in the pH gradient and increases the ATP production.

Outer and Inner membrane of mitochondrion (Chloroplast)
Note that there are attachment sites from the outer to the inner membrane.
These allow the proteins to be imported directly into the matrix (but not completely understand and research is still ongoing).

The inner
membrane has
many more
proteins than the
outer membrane

Supplemental

A human mitochondrial genome database
http://www.mitomap.org/

Supplemental
Human mtDNA migrations

Supplemental
Mitochondrial DNA Map

Supplemental
The size and gene content of mtDNA
vary from organism to organism

Supplemental
Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA stained with a fluorescent dye mt
nuclear

Cell

mt DNA

Supplemental
Production of mitochondrial (and chloroplast) proteins

not in the real scale

Supplemental

Codon Usage (standard code)

Supplemental

Codon Usage

Supplemental
Mitochondria have their own DNA and Ribosomes
Replication and Translation
How about Transcription?
The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a specialized machinery that includes a monomeric RNA polymerase, the mitochondrial
transcription factor A and one of the two mitochondrial transcription factor B paralogues, TFB1M or TFB2M.
Today, the components of the basal transcription machinery in mammalian mitochondria are known and their mechanisms of action are gradually being established.
In addition, regulatory factors govern transcription levels both at the stage of initiation and termination, but the detailed biochemical understanding of these processes is largely missing.

Supplemental
Mitochondria have their own DNA and Ribosomes

The detailed biochemical understanding of the
transcription processes is largely missing.

Supplemental
How do mitochondria replicate?
The mitochondria have their own DNA and replicates itself
along with RNA and protein synthesis machinery.
Most proteins are made in the cell nucleus but about 20
proteins are encoded in the mitochondria DNA.
The genetic code for mitochondria...
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