top-rated free essay

Chem Grade 11 Exam Notes

By DhrumilShah1 Jan 10, 2013 824 Words
Chem 11 Study Guide SCH3U
Unit 1
* SATP: Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure ( 100kpa and 25 degrees C) * STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure (101.325kp and 0 deg C) * IUPAC: Intn’l Union of Pure and Applied Chem (approves, makes chem names symbols, etc. * Representative Elements: an element in any of groups 1,2,13-18 * Transition Metal: element of groups 3-12

* Energy level: a space with definite and fixed energy in which an electron is allowed to move * Orbit: circular/spherical path in which the electron can move around the nucleus * Electron Cloud: the region of an atom in which there is a probability that an electron exists * Quantum Mechanics: theory of the atom in which electrons are described in terms of their energies/probability patterns (model looks like smoke around a circle) * Principal Quantum # (n from 2n^2 formula for max # e- per level): # specifying the theoretical energy lvl of an elctron in the atom * Avg Atomic Mass: weighted avg of masses of an atom’s isotopes * Isotope: atoms with same # of protons but diff # of neutrons * Isotopic Abundance: % of an isotope in a sample of an element * Nuclear Charge: positive charge on nucleus (# of protons/atomic number) * Position of Outermost Orbital: dist. Btwn nucleus and valence e- (increases down cuz more lvls outweigh nuc charge, decreases across cuz same # o lvls, more nuc charge pulls elecs in) * Shielding Effect: extent to which elecs in inner orbits affect bonding of valence elecs * Atomic radius: size o atom (picometrs) (increases down cuz more levels outweigh nuc charge, increases to the left cuz of less nuc charge for same number of lvls) * Ionic Radius: radius as an atom becomes an ion (decreases since an element has one fewer energy level as it becomes a positive ion loses electrons) *increases downwards cuz more energy lvls to begin with even after losing, *increases to theleft cuz of less nuclear charge yet same number of lvls * Ionization Energy: amount of energy it takes to remove an electron from atom/ion in gas state (1st ~ = farthest elec, 2nd ~ = 2nd farthest, etc.) (increases upwards (requires more energy/is harder) cuz less lvls, less shielding effect = does NOT stop nuc charge making it harder and increases to right cuz more nuc charge, no increase in lvls= shielding effect = electrons pulled closer and made HARDER to remove) * Electronegativity: number that describe the relative ability of an atom when bonded to attract electrons (increases upwards cuz less shielding effect and increases to right cuz less shielding effect) * Electron Affiniy: the enrgy change that occurs when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state (same as ionization energy!) * Reactivity: how reactive the element is (metals = increases down and to left cuz shielding elec block nuc charge making elecs easier to remove so closer to losing enough to get an empty valence shell. Nonmetals = increases up cuz less nuclear charge, increases to right cuz more elecs but no increase in shielding effect so closer to achieving full valence shell) * Intramolecular Forces: the attractive forces between atoms and ions WITHIN a compound * Intermolecular forces: the attractive forces BETWEEN molecules * Ionic Compounds Properties: high melting point, solids at SATP, electrolyte, strong bond (crystal lattice) * Covalent Compounds Properites: low melting point, liquid/gas at SATP, don’t conduct/form electrolytes, flexible * Excited State: any state other than ground state

* Ground State: lowest allowed energy state of an atom/molecule/ion * Catalyst: substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction without undergoing permanent change itself (does not get consumed/changed) Notes:

* Diagnostic test for an ionic compound: check if it dissolves and becomes an electrolyte * Anything above and below any horizontal line segment of staircase is metalloid except obvious Aluminum * VSEPR Theory (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory): REMEMBER THE FOLLOWING RULES:

* Electron pairs repel one another and molecules will adjust their shape so that the electron pairs are as far apart as possible * **Electron pairs around the CENTRAL ATOM ONLY (both bonded and lone) influence the molecular shape! So rmr this one in particular! If it’s not near the central, it’s NOT counted!!!** * Lone pairs and bonded repel each other and themselves

* Tetrahedral: 4 bond sites, 0 lone pairs, 109 degree angle, i.e. CH4 --- = behind --- = sticking out each line in general tho is a bond site * Trigonal Pyramidal: 3 bs, 1 lp, 107 degree angle, i.e. NH3 ..= lone pair * Bent: 2 bs, 2lp, 105 degree angle i.e. H2O

* Linear: 2 bs 0 lp, 180 deg angle, i.e. NO2 **A double bond, triple bond etc. is STILL ONLY ONE BOND SITE!!!** * Trigonal Planar: 3bs, 0 lp,120deg angle i.e.CO3
* ****: any diatomic molecules = linear
* ****: if more than one central atom, predict shape at each central atom SEPERATELY! * POLAR BONDS:
* Using electronegativity number and VSEPR theory, you can figure out if a molecule is polar covalent, non-polar covalent, or ionic. * If the difference in elec-ity is

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Science Grade 9 Exam Notes

    ...Chemistry Types pf Compounds * Homogeneous mixtures are composed of one or more parts that look as one. * Heterogeneous mixtures consist of two or more substances and do not look as one. * Compounds are two or more elements that are chemically combined. * Matter that contains more than one kind of particle. * Elements a...

    Read More
  • Grade 11 Chemistry - the Periodic Table Notes

    ...Chapter 11 - The Periodic Table 11-1 Organizing by Properties Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) russian, published his element classification in 1869 - increasing molar mass - matching similar properties Mendeleev's periodic table included gaps - yet to be discovered - predicted the properties of missing elements repetition in properties of ...

    Read More
  • BIology grade 11 notes

    ...Unit1: Cell functions/ Cell division Cells Cell theory: -All living things are composed of one or more cells. -The cell is the smallest entity that retains the properties of life. -New cells arise only from cell that already exists. Structure of the cell: The outer boundary (plasma membrane) similar to a city wall It is construc...

    Read More
  • Organic Chem experience 11 159°C. The lower melting point can also be a sign that the mixture is not pure. The melting point is still close to the theoretical one. In conclusion, the objective of this experiment was to do the organic synthesis to produce salicylic acid from methyl salicylate. Even if the percentage yield is 181%, it can be say that the final product ...

    Read More
  • Chem 210 fall 11 exam 2 key

    ...Name _____________________ Page 1 I. (19 points) A. Aziridines are 3-membered nitrogen heterocycles that can behave as electrophiles in substitution reactions. The aziridine 1 shown below has been shown to react with Na+ –OCH3 to give products 2 and 3. Ph = Note: Na N OCH3 Br N + N OCH3 3 2 1 This abbrev...

    Read More
  • chem exam 3

    ...CHEM 135 Take Home Exam Sp 2014 Type in the blocks and the chart will expand as needed. Good luck. Return by 5 p.m. Saturday, April 26, 2014. Thank you. Ms. Vallee 1. A. Chiral- An object that cannot lay over on its mirror image (pg291). B. Non-superimposable- A molecule that can be placed on top of its mirror image (http://www.chem...

    Read More
  • Chemistry 30s Exam Grade 11

    ...GRADE 11 CHEMISTRY (30S) Final Practice Examination Answer Key GRADE 11 CHEMISTRY (30S) Final Practice Examination Answer Key IInstructions The final examination will be weighted as follows Modules 1–3 Modules 4–6 The format of the examination will be as follows: Part A: Fill-in-the-Blanks Part B: Multiple Choice Part C: Short Ans...

    Read More
  • chem notes

    ...DESIGN OF THE QUESTION PAPER CHEMISTRY CLASS - XII Time : Three Hours Max. Marks : 70 The weightage of the distribution of marks over different dimensions of the question paper shall be as follows: A. Weightage to content/subject units Unit Title Marks 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. ...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.