Chapter 27 Study Guide
1. The process of industrialism threatened traditional and social hierarchies in both societies. In Russia, the aristocracy was threatened by the abolition of serfdom, the creation of regional zemstvoes, and reforms of the army. In Japan, the samurai were almost destroyed by the fall of the shogunate, the destruction of feudalism, and military reform. Both nations used territorial expansion as a means of mollifying the aristocracy and building support for the imperial government. 2. A move to industrialization was part of the process of change. In Russia, state support was vital, because it lacked a middle class and capital. A railway system was created in the 1870s. It reached the Pacific in the 1880s. Siberia was opened to development and increased Russian involvement in Asia. Under Count Wittle, the government passed high tariffs, improved the banking system, and encouraged Western investment. 3. The forces that led to the revolution in Russia in 1905 were the continuing dissatisfaction of both peasants and landowners to the Emancipation Edict of 1861. The peasants were angry at the redemption payments they were expected to pay in return for the land they had received. The landowners were also unhappy with the terms of emancipation. 4. Japan adopted a Western-style army and navy. New banks were established to fund trade and provide investment capital. Railways and steam vessels improved national communications. Many old restrictions one commerce, such as guilds and internal tariffs, were removed. 5. Japan achieved sustained growth in per capita income through industrialization. The social capacity for importing and adapting foreign technology improved, and this contributed to a productivity growth. 6. Serfdom had increased steadily in Russia during 1815 to 1860 from the time of Ivan the Terrible. This system lasted until 1861, under Alexander II. After that Russia went through the period of reformation. 7. Russia’s peasant problem...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document