Chapter 19: Immigration, Urbanization, and everyday Life, 1860-1900
The New American City
* most changes in cities with urban growth fueled by
* migration from the countryside and immigration, created environment for economic development * b/w 1870 and 1900, population increased, 40% of population live in cities, * diversity of city threatened traditional expectations, rapid growth led to terrible living conditions and accentuated class differences * native born city dwellers unsatisfied with newcomers treatment; tried to clean away anything unnatural but America was becoming urban Migrants and Immigrants
* growth of industries in urban cities demanded more workers, because (pull factors): * Good wages, broad range of jobs, opportunity
* migration from rural areas increased, mechanization of farming in 19th century meant more male work leading to women moving to cites competing with immigrant black and city-born white women * from 1860 - 1890, prospect of better life attracted immigrants * Germans largest group, then English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish * By 1900, more than 800,000 French-Canadians migrated south to work in New England mills * Scandinavians rooted in farmlands of Wisconsin and Minnesota * On west, despite Chinese Exclusion Act, more than 80,000 Chinese remained in California and nearby in 1900 * earlier immigrants joined by New Immigrants from southern and eastern Europe: * Italians, Slavs, Greeks, Jews, Armenians from Middle east, in Hawaii; Japanese from Asia * Would later boost America's foreign born population by more than 18 million * majority of immigrants settled in cities in northeastern and north-central states; Irish predominated in New England, Germans in midwest, high numbers of people larger than their home capitals * 4/5 people living in New York born abroad or were children of foreign-born parents * some recent immigrants forced out of home by overpopulation, famine, crop failure, religious persecution, violence, or industrial depression (push factors) * others came for opportunity, ex: over 100,000 Japanese laborers lured to Hawaii in 1890’s to work on sugar plantations by promises of high wages * Large number of immigrants were single young men who some returned home after they had become successful * Common for wives and children to wait back home until family breadwinner gets job and saves enough money to pay for passage to America * single women less likely to come but those who did mostly Irish who sent earnings back home * immigrants traveled first from Germany on a steamship to the US usually with bad conditions and causing illness and hunger * Immigrants with contagious and bad diseases are not allowed to pass through * Anglicized names of immigrants because were hard to pronounce * build Ellis Island in New York Harbor in 1982 where could exchange foreign currency, purchase railroad tickets,, arrange lodging Adjusting to an Urban Society
immigrants relieved stress of adjusting to new life by living near friends and family (chain migration), many different nationalities grouped together in one area * used to believe settled together b/c of nationalism but was more complex, preferred to live near others from the same region * some adjusted easier than others; skilled workers familiar with Anglo-American customs had few problems, English speaking immigrants met little discrimination * ethnic groups that were huge part of population had advantage; Irish (16% of New York’s population) facilitated immigrants into mainstream by dominating democratic party politics and controlling church hierarchy * their success led them to be called “lace curtain” Irish, referring to their adoption of middle –class ideals * although large diversity of immigrants, were labeled as foreigners and some discriminated against and experience helped create new...
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