Chapter 16 Study Guide
1. 462 Hermeticism – An intellectual movement beginning in the 15th c. that taught that divinity is embodied in all aspects of nature; included works on alchemy and magic as well as theology and philosophy; influenced leaders of Scientific Revolution, cont. into 17th c. 2. 463 Ptolemy – came up w/ Ptolemaic conception of universe: concentric spheres fixed around an unmoving Earth, in the order of moon, Merury, Venus, the sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and fixed stars, beyong that was Empyrean Heaven; Christian Ptolemaic universe 3. 463 Copernicus – heliocentric conception of Earth
4. - On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres – Universe: 8 spheres w/ motionless sun at center & sphere of fixed stars at 8th sphere. The planets revolved around sun in order of Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, & Saturn; moon revolved around Earth 5. 465 Brahe – sun & planets revolved around earth while other planets revolved around sun 6. 465 Kepler – 3 laws of planetary motion: 1. orbits of planets were elliptical, not circular w/ sun at one focus rather than in center 2. speed of planet greater when nearer to sun, slower when further from sun 3. planet's w/ larger orbits revolve at slower avg than those w/ smaller orbits 7. 466 Galileo – discoveries: universe made of material like earth & not heavenly, mountains & craters on moon, 4 moons revolving around Jupiter, phases of Venus, sunspots, made his own telescope 8. Dialogue – defense of Copernican system
9. Starry Messenger – Galileo was believer of heliocentricism & supported Copernicus 10. 470 Newton – invented calculus (calculating rates of change), investigated composition of light, inaugurated his work on law of universal gravitation, studied alchemy, discovered gravity 1. Principia – math proofs of universal law of gravity, 3 laws of motion: every object continues in a state of rest or uniform motion in straight line unless deflected by force; rate of change of motion of object is proportional to force acting upon it; to every action there's always an equal and opposite reaction, this governs planetary bodies & terrestrial objects, e 11. Universal law of gravity – every object attracted to every other object by law of gravity 12. 472 Galen – 2 sep. blood systems: 1 controlled muscular activities & blood = bright red thru arteries, other governed digestive systems & blood = dark red blood thru veins; 4 bodily humors: blood- warm & moist, yellow bile- warm & dry, phlegm-cold & moist, black bile- cold & dry; blood vessels from liver 13. 472 Paracelsus – macrocosm and microcosm → the world to an organism, like cures like 14. 473 Vesalius – involved w/ works of Galen
15. On the Fabric of the Human Body – blood vessels from heart, 1 type of blood, correct human anatomy 16. 473 Harvey – demolished Galen's work
17. On the Motion of the Heart and Blood – heart = beginning point of blood circulation, same blood in both arteries & veins, blood makes complete circuit in human body 18. 473 Women’s role in … Scientific Revolution – many modern scientific advancements of women 19. 474 Cavendish – wrote Observations upon Experimental Philosophy & Grounds of Natural Philosophy, criticized empiricist & rationalist apporaches of science, participated in scientific debates but excluded from Royal Society 20. 474 Merian – entomologist artist, Wonderful Metamorphasis and Special Nourishment of Caterpillars, Metamorphasis of the Insects of Surinam 21. 475 Winklemann - 1st woman to discover a comet, assistant of Gottfried Kirch, corresponded w/ Gottfried Leibniz 22. 476 Descartes – had a mystical experience then dedictated life to math 1. Discourse on Method – 1. existence of God & separation of mind + matter 2. dualism between mind & body 3. thinking substance, spiritual & not composed of matter = mind; everything except thinking substance/mind = matter 23. Cartesian dualism – seperation of mind + matter (& mind + body), let scientists view matter as...
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