1.Explain how adaption relates to our thermoreceptors and touch receptors. How wefeel cold only when something cools or warms the thermoreceptor and not by the absolutetemperature. We are accustomed to a particular level of warmth and adapt to it.What is referred pain and how can it be dangerous? Referred pain is when something,usually internal organs, cause some other part of the body to feel the pain. It can be dangerous if someone with a heart attack have pain in their arm, and they might not recognizewhat is happening to them.2.Why olfaction and gustation are considered “chemical” special senses? Both olfaction and gustation are chemosensory systems. Chemoreception means a molecule from the environment binds to a receptor on a cell's surface. The receptor is shaped to receiveand then respond when a specific type of molecule binds. This binding triggers a signal with the information about the molecule having been detected.Explain the importance of hair cells with the sense of hearing and equilibrium. Haircells are simple mechanoreceptors which are complex structures of the inner ear and the different arrangement of accessory structures. Compare and contrast rod and cone cells location, function and overall amount. Rod cells do not discriminate among colors of light. They help us see in dim light. Cone cellsprovide color vision. Cones give humans sharper colors. Rod cells are found on the side while cones are found on the bottom.3.Explain how the body maintains homeostasis of serum (blood calcium) levelsthrough the use of the thyroid and parathyroid gland. The body maintains homeostasis ofserum levels through the use of the thyroid and parathyroid glands because the thyroidsecretes calcitonin and the parathyroid secretes parathyroid hormone. Both of these hormoneshelp regulate blood calcium levels.4.Explain the role the hypothalamus and pituitary gland have in the regulation of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus is a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain, is the primary link between the endocrine and nervous system.Nerve cells in the hypothalamus control the pituitary gland by producing chemicals thateither stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary. Although it is no biggerthan a pea, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus,is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the “MasterGland” because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands. Theproduction and secretion of pituitary hormones can be influenced by factors such as emotionsand seasonal changes. To accomplish this, the hypothalamus relays information sensed by the brain.If there were no negative feedback control on growth hormone and thyroid hormone? Negative feedback allows the body to know when enough of a hormone (oranything that can be measured) has been used. With our negative feedback, the brain cannottell when it has secreted growth hormone releasing hormone (the brain uses negativefeedback from growth hormone to know that it was successful in releasing GHRH). The same goes for the brain and thyrotropin releasing hormone. With out negative feedback onthese hormones you will grow uncontrolled and your metabolism (as well as body temp)will spiral out of control.5. Explain how the nervous system, general senses, and endocrine system work together to maintain homeostasis.Senses are part of the nervous system, specifically the afferent portion, they take in data(input) your nervous system analyzes the information you got from your senses (in the brain),brain interprets and says “dangerous” “safe” “pleasurable” etc. If anything dangerous itstimulates the endocrine system which will release hormones and neurotransmitters (ex.adrenaline which can make you do fight or flight), which your nervous system (brain again)causes your muscles (output motor) to complete (run or fight).
martini/bartholomew sixth edition essentials of anatomy & physiologyann ehrlich/ carol l. schroeder medical terminology sixth edition