California History Midterm 1 Study Guide

Topics: California Gold Rush, Chinese American history, Overseas Chinese Pages: 10 (2110 words) Published: April 20, 2014
1-The “Digger” Stereotype:
Justification of genocide
Judge by prior Native encounters
Few practiced agriculture, inferior
Digging of roots, gold
Facilitated the intense racism and brutal violence against Indians Inferiority of California Indians: easy to push aside/no match for civilized white society 1-Acorns
*Acorns helped confirm the digger stereotype. They were important to indigenous tribes because they were a main stable of food. They had high preservatives and often one harvest could yield two years worth. Also form of innovated with the use of trial and errors. 7 types of Oak trees

High in fat, tanic acid
Abundant => Staple resource (50% caloric intake)
Center of many cultures (Ohlone)
Pulverize to flour, meal (warm water leach off tanic acid)
1-Animism (Religious Belief)
*The Idea that everything has a tangible life form associated with it and these many spirits create the balance in the world. Some would hunt and if they found less deer than they figured that the gods were mad and that they were hiding the animals. World = Diversity of spirits (Animated by spirits)

Clash with Christianity/Missions
No concept of sin
2-Yuma Crossing
Captain Juan Bautista de Anza
Exploratory expedition Mexico-Alta, CA 1774
20+ people
Indian guide Sebastian Tarabal (fled from San Gabriel)
Quechan Indians-Gila/Colorado River junction
Palma-Quechan leader
1780-two small villages
June of 1781-Yumas attacked Spanish.
1781-1830s closed land route
3-Junipero Serra
*First father of the missions beginning in 1769 up until 1784. He was responsible for opening 9 missions. Between 1769 and 1790 over 5000 natives converted to Catholicism. Symbolized missionary experience/system and Spanish colonialism Famous for skill in public speaking

Performed self-mortification
Exemplified the colonial ideals of 16th century Spain
Controversial figure
55 years old (physical limitations)
Religious head (Portola)
Medieval World view
Francisican order
1769-San Diego
1784 Death: 9 missions/4 presidios/5,000 Neophytes
3-Disease & Population Dynamics
No evidence of intended infection
Fragmented communities/destroyed families => children/mothers seek food/refuge at missions Measles killed all 7 yrs old) protection
Spanish culture of Patriarchy/Honor = casual attitudes toward sexual exploitation Behavior of soldiers lead to Indian revolts
3-Tulareños
Republic of Hell
Wetlands (Central Valley)
70,000 Yokut/Miwok
Treacherous terrain => dangerous pursue fugitives, raiders, new recruits Refuge escaped Natives/Launching place for raids on missions Horse trading network: Engaged in stealing/funneling horses (interior West) Autonomous/Powerful communities = weakness of Alta CA

-similar to New Mexican communities = Apaches/Comanches in the Southwest 3-Estanislao
Alcalde-Indian leader
Rebellion: San Jose, 1828-1829
Passes to visit friends/relatives in the interior
Sent message to Father Duran declaring rebellion
Defeated two Spanish expeditions
Stanislaus River-Spring of 1829
Mission San Jose: Sought pardon/forgiveness
Role of protective ingratiation by an influential neophyte
Significance of Tularenos as a refuge/place of resistance
Ethogenesis: Language & Shared resentment of Spanish/Missions/Colonists
-unite former rivals/distinct culture groups
4-California Banknotes
Production of hides for manufacturing of leather:
-industrial belting, shoes, saddles, hats and clothing
Hides: $1 to $2
Common medium of exchange in a society with very little circulating currency Soaked in ocean to soften, Pickled in a vat of brine, Scraped clean to remove fat/residues, Spread out in sun, Dry then transported to a boat Dana: Process 25 hides/day… Warehouse 44,000 processed hides Very dangerous/difficult work (Hazardous surf)

4-Richard Henry Dana
Two Years Before the Mast (1840)
Hired to work on the ship Pilgrim out of New England
Recorded descriptions of Mexican California’s economy
Views of Californio...
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